Hello! This is my copy of a work done many years ago on the early internet days by mareev (at) well (dot) com.
I've had it posted here for many years as well, as I believe that certain themes carry on throughout history, and
documents such as this one should be studied carefully in order to bear witness to, and realize the extent to which
these themes continue into the present day, and how they have influenced and created the world conditions in
which we presently find ourselves.

Be the change you want to see!

Back to the Timeline's main page

A Work-In-Progress
Copyright 1993
Send comments, additions, corrections to: mareev (at) well (dot) com 
and please use "sixties" or "timeline" in the e-mail title.



"I hold it that a little rebellion now and then is a good thing. . .
It is a medicine necessary for the sound health of government. . . 
God forbid that we should ever be twenty years without such a rebellion. . .

	Thomas Jefferson (1780)

1095-	1270	The Crusades
1132		Henry I of France grants charters of corporate towns
		protecting commerce and industry
1100s?		rise of guilds in medieval cities
1100s	late	Joachim de Flores:
1100s		Poor Men of Lyons (Fr) follow Pierre Wald, merchant who
		gave away all of his wealth to the poor. 
		The Waldensians are exterminated in
		a bloody papal cruade in the early 1200s.
1209		Francis of Assisi (Italy) starts his brotherhood (the Franciscans) (he is 27)
1215		King John of England seals the Magna Carta at Runnymede
1229		The Inquisition in Toulouse forbids Bible reading by all laymen
1252		The Inquisition begins to use instruments of torture
1258		The first House of Commons in Britain
1260-	1327	Meister Eckhart (German preacher & mystic)
1200s	late	commercial and industrial boom in the north and central
		Italian cities; Florence becomes the leading European city
		in commerce and finance; beginnings of manufacturing industries;
		Hanseatic League forms in Germany; Swiss League forms;
		many new European universities founded; Petrarch, Dante . . .
1347-51		Black Death devastates Europe (including 1/3 of English pop,
		a total of 75 million people) (Boccaccio: Decameron, Chaucer)
when?		Eng: theologian John Wyclif attacks the property of the church
1381		Eng: Peasants Revolt under Wat Tyler, who was inspired by
		Wyclif (John Ball)
1382		Wyclif is expelled from Oxford, doctrines condemned by
		London synod

		1300s-1400s Lollards: attack Church corruption,
		emphasize individual interpretation of the Bible

1396		Greek classics start to be taught in Ital
		--> revival of Greek literature in Italy
		(Florence under the Medici is the center; Leonardo da Vinci)
1398-	1416	Prague: Jan Hus, inspired by Lollards; Hussites & Taborites
1431		First German peasant revolt at Worms
1453		Gutenberg prints the bible at Mainz, Germany
1431-	1463	Francois Villon, "the first Bohemian"
1463		Orvieto, Italy: money loaned at interest to poor people
1481		Beginning of the Spanish Inquisition under joint direction
		of the state & the church (Torquemada)
1493		The first Bundschuh (peasants' revolt) in Alsace & sw Germany

1400s-	1500s	Enclosures in Britain
1445-	1501	35,000 books printed in 10 million copies from 1000 offices

		Age of exploration & colonization of Asia, Africa, Cen & So Am
		rise of the centralized state
		(Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Shakespeare)
1501		Moors of Spain defeated/conquered   expelled?
1502		Peasants' revolt, Speyer, Ger
1509		restart of European slave trade; settlers bring Africans to S. Am.
1512		Copernicus states that the earth and planets revolve
		around the sun (1549 objection)
1513		Peasants' revolt: Wurttemberg and Black Forest
1514		Peasants' revolt, Hungary
1516		Sir Thomas More: Utopia (1551 translated from Latin to Eng)
1517		Martin Luther, inspired by the conservative Hussites,
		protests against the Church's sales of indulgences by posting 
		his 95 theses on the door of the Palast Church, Wittenberg
		--> Reformation in Germany
1524-5		Peasants' revolt against landlords S. Ger. led by Thomas Munzer,
		founder of the Anabaptist movement (& Austria) - defeated
1528		The weavers of Kent riot against Wolsey's policy to move
		English staple town for wool from Antwerp to Calais
1534		`Communist state' of Anabaptists under leadership of John
		of Leiden at Munster, Westphalia
1536		Church of England separates from the Pope
1536		first European newspaper: Gazetta, Venice  (& see 1566)
1547		Nostradamus (1503-66) makes first predictions
1560		Huguenots (Fr) / Puritanism (Eng)
1566		Calvinist riots in Netherlands; Inquisition there abolished
1567		two million Native Americans in S Am die of typhoid fever
1579		St. John of the Cross: xxx
1600s		science, European wars, witch trials, dueling, slaving
1600		(ca) first thermometer
1606		Founding of Virginia colony starts the colonization
		of North America
1612		Last recorded burning of heretics in England
1615		Galileo faces the Inquisition for the first time
1630-	1680	HIGH BAROQUE
1648		Society of Friends (Quakers) founded
		1600s, Poland & Transylvania: Unitarians
1600s,	1700s	UK: Levellers & Dissenters (original Diggers?) 
		Levellers: advocate religious and social equality 
		1648 The Agreement of the People (pamphlet)
		1649 suppressed by Oliver Cromwell
1653		Peasants' revolt, Switzerland
1660		Cafe Procope opens in Paris
1665		Isaac Newton experiments on gravity
1670		First minute hands on watches
"1692"		Salem witch trials
1600s	late	to mid 1700s: dead period in art (court portraits, art)
1700s		industrialism, highways, canals, sidewalk paving
		first classical composers; quadrille, minuet, waltz
		encylopedias, museums; threshing machine, cotton gin
1700		first American protest against slavery: `The Selling of Joseph'
1712		Slave revolts, NY
1712		Last execution for witchcraft in England
1714		Prussia: witchcraft trials abolished
1715		Rising of Native American tribes in South Carolina colony
1720		First collective settlemen in Vermont (which is this?)
1727		Quakers demand abolition of slavery
(1728-		Freemasons start)
1733		First? [N. Eur.] conscription - Prussia
1752		Benjamin Franklin discovers electricity
1759		Voltaire: Candide
1762		Jean-Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract
1764		James Watt invents condenser, first step toward
		steam engine   1775 perfects   1782
1770		First public restaurant, Paris
1772		Inquisition abolished in France
1776		Adam Smith: An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the
		Wealth of Nations
1777		Cooperative workshop for tailors at Birmingham
1784		first mail by coaches (London to Bristol)
1787		Shakers found Mount Lebanon, NY (which lasts until 1947)
1789		William Blake (1757-1827): Songs of Innocence
		Goya (1746-1828)
1791		Thomas Paine: The Rights of Man
1792		Denmark becomes first nation to abolish the slave trade
		Mary Wollstonecraft: Vindication of the Rights of Women
1793		start of Napoleonic wars??
1794		William Blake: Songs of Experience
1791-	1817	Goethe writing Wilhelm Meister  published 1795?
1794		Slavery abolished in the French colonies
		(including New Orleans? start of music?)
1795		First poor relief/dole in Britain
1797		J.M.W. Turner(1775-1851): Millbank, Moonlight  (he was 22)
1798		Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population (32)
		- - first generation to grow up after the French Revolution reaches their 20s - -
1800		Robert Owen (1771-1858) (29) takes over New Lanarck mills 
		and starts social reforms
1802		atomic theory, biology
1802		Toussaint-L'Ouverture, Santo Domingo (Fr colony)
		slave revolt - surpressed
1803		New Orleans become part of U.S. (Louisiana Purchase)
1803		first passenger steamboat
1807		Ingres (1780-1867) 27: begins most famous painting
1808		Goethe writing Faust Part I - (1832 Part II)   but see 1773
1808		Rebellion against Napoleon? in Madrid
		inspires Goya's paintings of revolution
1808		Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition in Spain & Italy
1810?-		ROMANTICISM (Scott, Woodsworth, Byron, Shelley,
		Coleridge, Jane Austen, Keats, Hugo, Goethe?, Whitman)
1811		Luddite movement destroys industrial machines in N. England
1812		Grimms Brothers Fairy Tales (they were 26 & 27)
1812		Byron (24): Childe Harold's Pilgrimage tells of a hero
		who spent days similar to his own of 1808, when he
		had a skull found by his gardener on the grounds
		of Newstead Abbey polished and mounted as a drinking cup
		and gave a farewell party of drinking, masquerading as monks,
		romping with his tame bear, and entertaining his "Paphian girls"
1813		Robert Owen: A New View {?Outlook} of Society (UK)
1793-	1814	Napoleon defeated and sent to Elba
1814		George Stephenson invents & constructs first practical
		steam engine, near Newcastle, England
1815		On returning from Elba, Napoleon sends press-gangs
		into the student quarter in Paris, trying to round up
		an army; most escape and the tradition of anti-monarchy, 
		anti-enlistment is established among Parisian students
1815		Napoleon defeated at Waterloo
		Economic postwar crisis in England
when?		Byron, xx, Percy Bysshe Shelley 1792-1822, Mary  visit to xx
1816		Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley writes Frankenstein
1817		First gaslight introduced in London
1817		South American independence: Simon Bolivar in Venezuela,
		1818 Chile independence
1819		recession
		Maximum 12-hour work day for juveniles, England
		Freedom of the press in France
1820		Washington Colonization Society founds Liberia for repatriation of Negroes
1820s		word "slums" coined
1822		Charles Fourier (d. 1837): Traite  [accents] de l'association
		domestique-agricole (Theorie de l'unitie universelle) (Paris)
1825		first railway opened - London
1825		first U.S. Owenist community, New Harmony, Indiana, founded
		1757-1827 William Blake  (America, A Prophecy when pub?)
1827		sulfur friction matches introduced
		J.J. Audubon: Birds of North America
1828		first railroad built in U.S. (Baltimore & Ohio)
1828		Working Men's Party founded, New York
1829		First cooperative stores in America (Philadelphia and NY)
		Omnibuses become part of London public transport
1830	Feb 25	Victor Hugo's Romantic Army formed at opening of
		his play Hermani at Theatre-Francais, Paris.
		They call themselves "Young France".
1830		6,000 Parisians die in revolution barricades 
		ending the post-Napoleonic Bourbon restoration
		Ladies skirts grow shorter; sleeves and hats larger;
		men begin to wear stiff collars
		Religious society of Mormons founded, NY
1831	summer	Hugo's followers (including poets Nerval, Gautier & Borel)
		[inspired by Byron]
		camp in tents around isolated rented Montmartre
		house, sleep on animal skins, and go naked, emitting
		animal howls; neighbors get landlord to drive them out
1831		Virginia slave revolt led by Negro Nat Turner
		Lyons, France uprisings by working class against wretched conditions
		Mass demonstrations in Swiss cities lead to popular reforms
1832	Jn 5-6	The poor of Paris, with their romantic allies, 
		revolt against the new monarchy
1832		Parisian Saint-Simonian newspaper coins the word "socialism"
		Mass demonstrations in Germany
		New England Anti-Slavery Society founded, Boston
1833		Four Parisian artists, Gautier, Nerval, Houssaye, & Rogier 
		create the first Bohemian house 
1835		Alexis De Tocqueville: Democracy in America 
		(published in Paris; published in US 1838)
		Hans Christian Anderson (1805-75) starts publishing fairy tales
		first negative photograph
		The expression "art for art's sake" comes into general use
1835-	42	Seminoles second war against the U.S. to avoid deportation and repel encroachment
1836		Working class movement, Chartism, founded in U.K.
		demand universal suffrage and vote by ballot
		Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte tries to bring about a revolt 
		of the Fr? garrison at Strasbourg and is banished to America
		Ralph Waldo Emerson: Nature
		electric? telegraph invented by Wheatstone
1837		financial and economic panic in eastern U.S. (+?)  - revivals
1837-	1848	First modern industrial depression (U.K.)
1838		Cherokees sent on the Trail of Tears
		Chopin's liason with George Sand begins
1839		Voyage en Icarie by Etienne Cabet (1788-1856)
		(?describes socialist utopia)
		Daguerre invents his camera and takes first photograph
		first bicycle; first electric clock; Goodyear: vulcanization
		Louis Blanc: L'Organisation du Travail 
		("to each according to his needs, from each according to his abilities")
		Balzac uses the word "bohemian" for the first time
		to describe the new spontaneous, creative spirit
1840		Albert Brisbane: The Social Destiny of Man
		(follower of Fourier) published in U.S.
		Pierre Joseph Proudhon: "Property is theft"
		Penny post commenced, England
1840s		"the hungry 40s" in England as the depression continues
		also rapid industrialisation
		Connecticut, Mass, and Penn pass laws limiting hours of
		employement of minors in textile factories
		Chartist movement builds nearly 300 cottages in five settlements
		for supporters who wish to become independent smallholders
1841		Christ, Gothic, & Murger (Paris artists?) form a Bohemian cenacle, 
		The Society of the Water Drinkers, living in poverty
		for art, often visited by the older Hugolaters
		U.S.S. "Creole" slave revolt
		Punch first regular humorous magazine, U.K.
1841-47		Community at Brook Farm, Massachusetts (became Fourierest)
1839-42		Britain wins Opium War, forcing Chinese to accept opium 
		instead of silver as payment for tea and silk
1840s		Hashish introduced into Bohemian Paris by Gautier and others
1840s		Gautier and Flaubert develop idea of "art for art's sake"
1841		First university degrees granted to women in America
		Travel agent Thomas Cook arranges his first excursion - 
		to a temperance meeting in England
1842		Britain Chartism movement stages general strike
		Riots and strikes in industrial areas of N. England
		Polka comes into fashion
1843		Dickens: A Christmas Carol
		Sunday drumming & dancing gatherings of ?slaves? in
		Congo Square, New Orleans, terminated by city authorities;
		rituals taken into the church (?gradually)
		First Amana commune (Ebenezer, NY) (re-organized to
		share-holder community May 1932; still continuing)
		First Fourierist community founded in U.S.
		Dorothea Dix reports shocking conditions in Massachusetts
		prisons and asylums
		Congress funds Morse to build first telegraph line
		(Washington to Baltimore)
		"The Bohemian Girl" - London, Drury Lane (is this important?)
		Samuel C.S. Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy (1755-1843)
1844		Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers (co-operative)
		Karl Marx meets Friedrich Engels in Paris
		(YMCA founded, England)
1845		Friedrich Engels: The Conditions of the Working Class
		in England", published in Leipzig
1845-47		Thoreau lives at Walden Pond
1846		Brigham Young leads the Mormons to Salt Lake City
		start of Irish potato blight famine: 5 million die over 1847-52
		from 1850-60  914,000 emigrate to US
		Sewing machine patented by Elias Howe
1847		British Factory Act restricts the working day for women
		and children between 13 and 18 - to 10 hours
1848		Oneida commune with complex marriage founded NY (to 1881)
		Revolution of 1848 by Parisian poor; 25,000 killed;
		socialist bourgeois republic created
		+ revolts in Vienna, Venice, Berlin, Milan, Parma, Rome
		First socialist community founded in U.S. (Icaria);
		Texas, moves to Illinois, then Missouri, Iowa
		-- the generation born since the Paris revolt of 1830 
		is in its 20s: Gustave Moreau 22 (when was art?), Jules Verne 20 --
		Dante Gabriel Rossetti 20, John Everett Millais 19, and William 
		Holman Hunt 21, found Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, U.K.
		Marx and Engels: Communist Manifesto
		Thoreau: On The Duty of Civil Disobedience
		John Stuart Mill: Principles of Political Economy (is this important?)
		First Public Health Act in Britain
		Spiritualism becomes popular in U.S.
		Discovery of gold in California starts the gold rush

1848-9		Murger publishes chapters from Scenes de la Vie
		de Boheme, which is translated into many languages
1849		Revolts in Dresden and Baden; Ger. National Assembly passes constitution
1850		The Vegetarian Society founded, Manchester
1851		or 53? Ruskin: The Stones of Venice (man can only be free
		if he is being creative, and industrialism destroys this)
1852		Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte declares himself emperor of France;
		Victor Hugo opposes this and flees into exile
		First Congress of Co-operative Societies meets, London
1853		Haussman begins redesign of Paris, creating boulevards
		through lower class areas for ease of moving the army
		around and to keep the middle classes from moving out
		Crimean War begins: xx die of cholera
		until Florence Nightingale introduces sanitation
		William Morris starts college, meets Edward Burne-Jones,
		and discusses John Ruskin's Modern Painters with him
		Saltaire model village built, ne of Manchester
1854		"War for Bleeding Kansas" between free and slave states
		Thoreau: Walden, or Life in the Woods
		First street-poster pillars erected in Berlin
1854/5		James Whistler, American artist, is one of many
		artists who flow into Paris after having read Murger's accounts
1856 +		Karl Marx living in London (observing cap sys) (when to when?)
1856?		Golden spike joins the west coast of U.S. to the east
1857		US-wide depression, & economic crisis throughout Europe,
		caused by speculation in U.S. railroad shares
		Irish Republican Brotherhood (Fenians) founded
		Charles Baudelaire: "Les Fleurs du mal"
		Pasteur shows that fermentation is caused by living organisms
		New Orleans legalizes licensed prostitutes
1858		Olmsted's design for New York's Central Park
when?		City Beautiful movement
1859		Darwin's Origin of the Species published
		John Stuart Mill (1806-73): On Liberty
		Internal combustion engine invented
		first self-help manual published (how to succeed in life)
1860		-- the generation coming of age with the revolt of 1848 
		is in its 20s: Dore & Manet 28, Burne-Jones 27, Morris 26, 
		Degas & Whistler 26, Cezanne 21, Monet & Renoir & Rodin 20, 
		+ Lewis Carroll 28, Twain 25, Ramakrishna 24-- 
1860s		Can-can becomes the rage in Paris
1861		Confederate states ?cesede; U.S. Civil War starts
		U.S. introduces passport system
		Pasteur's germ theory of fermentation
		First horse-drawn trams in London and first daily weather
		broadcasts in Britain
		U.K.: William Morris (27) starts design firm 
		leading to the birth of the Arts and Crafts movement
		Paul Cezanne (22) arrives in Paris
1862		U.S.: Homestead Act opens free land for pioneers
		Victor Hugo: Les Miserables
		Founding of Red Cross proposed by Swiss humanist Dunant
1863?		U.S.: first Federal conscription  (for the Civil War)
		(including 300 dollar buy-out)
1863	July	five days: NYC Draft Riots, 105 killed, many Negro
1863		The "Salon de Refuses" in Paris:
		?Edouard Manet's Luncheon on the Grass exhibited?
		and many others
		London begins constructing Underground railroad
		U.S. Congress establishes free city mail delivery
1863-4		8000 Navajos captured by Kit Carson and interned for
		four years in New Mexico, then sent to a reservation
1864		Dostoevsky: Notes From the Underground
		Mark Twain 29, arriving in San Francisco, finds a
		vigorous literary movement called The Bohemians
		Massacre of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand
		Creek, Colo.
		First International Workingmen's Association founded by
		Karl Marx, London and New York
		Tolstoi: War and Peace
		Octavia Hill begins London tenement-dwelling reforms
1865		U.S. Civil War ends
		Thirteenth amendment to US Constitution abolishes slavery
		Many freed blacks turn to farming, xxx, & music (minstrel
		shows, etc.)
		Lewis Carroll: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
		Atlantic cable completed
		First oil pipeline (in Pennsylvania)
		Ku Klux Klan founded, Pulaski, Tenn.
		First railroad sleeping cars (designed by Pullman), U.S.
		First train holdup (North Bend, Ohio)
		1700 die in explosion of "Sultana", Mississippi River
		First carpet sweeper
		Commons Preservation Society founded, U.K.
1866		London's first department store
1866	(-67)	Dostoevsky: Crime and Punishment
		"Black Friday" on London Stock Exchange
1867		First socialist member of N. Ger. Reichstag elected
		Marx: Das Kapital vol. 1
		Paris Universal Exposition introduces Japanese art to the west
		and much more
		Straus: "Blue Danube" waltz
		first bicycles manufactured (France?)
		reinforced concrete patented
		gold discovered in Wyoming
		Mark Twain: The Jumping Frog . . .
		Baudelaire dies, the last of the old crowd?
1868		Painters begin to paint in Impressionist style:
		Claude Monet (28): The River (impressionist)
		Bakunin founds Alliance internationale de la democratie sociale
		plastic celluloid invented
		Nobel ?invents? dynamite
		End of Shogunate civil wars in Japan, establishment of
		young Meiji emperor, Japan starts to modernize
1869		U.S. National Prohibition Party formed in Chicago
		Red River Rebellion in Canada
		John Stuart Mill: On The Subjection of Women
		Bret Harte: The Outcasts of Poker Flat
		British debtors' prisons abolished
		First postcards, Austria
1840-	1870	Population of Paris nearly doubled: restaurants, cafes,
		theaters, hotels, department stores
1870s		U.K. agricultural depression: many move to cities
1870		Louis Napoleon dismisses Haussman & loses war to Prussia
		Revolt in Paris and proclamation of Third Republic;
		siege of Paris by Prussia
		"Old Europe disappeared" wrote Henry Adams 
		1870s: all of west goes on the gold standard (to 1930s)
		U.K.: Education Act  ?establishes public education?
		-> literacy of masses [when established in US?]
		Jules Verne: Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea
1871		A people's government, the Commune, holds Paris for two months
		Arthur Rimbaud, 17 arrives in Paris
		Fors Clavigera: Ruskin's anti-industry letters (explain)
		Charles Darwin: The Descent of Man
		Charles L. Dodgson: Through the Looking Glass
		first large modern luxury ocean liner launched
1872		First Intl Conf [of Socialism] the Hague:
		Rus anarchist Michael Bakunin defeated & expelled by Karl Marx
		Samuel Butler: Erewhon (explain)
		Cezanne and Pissarro at Auvers-sur-Oise
		first 8 hour day rule adopted in US -
		in NYC after six weeks of strikes in 3 of NYC's major industries
		Jules Verne: Around the World in 80 Days
1873		Rimbaud (19) writes A Season in Hell
		(couldn't afford to pay printer, so it stayed in the
		cellar of the print shop until 1901 or 2)
		Normalcy returns to France; many of Haussman's projects finished
		Financial panic in Vienna (May) and New York (Sept)
		US depression starts with closing of Jay Cooke's banking house
		(Knights of Labor formed) (-1878)
1874		First impressionist exhibition, Paris
		(named after Monet's painting: "Impression: Sunrise")
		James Whistler (living in U.K.): "Nocturne in Black & Gold"
		first Hutterites (350 year old European communal group) 
		immigrate to U.S., found communes which still exist
		(in 1983: 33,000 members in 300 settlements, 100 of them in US)
1875		Theosophical Society founded by Helena Blavatsky, N.Y.
		Mary Baker Eddy: Science and Health
		first California community, Fountain Grove, founded,
		2 miles n of Santa Rosa, Calif by Swedenborgian (to 1900)
1875-6		Workers attending Mutual Improvement Class, Sheffield
		decide to call themselves communist and to start communal
		farm: St. George's Farm
1876		First planned railway suburb: Bedford Park, west London
		Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone
		Degas: La Moulin de la Galette  also saw as Renoir
1877		In depths of the depression, railroad workers strike 
		in a dozen U.S. cities
		American Socialist Labor Party formed
		first Farmers Alliance formed
		Compromise of 1877: Southern electoral votes support Republican
		Presidential candidate (Hayes) in return for financial aid
		and continuation of the Southern power structure
		William Morris gets involved in politics as a Socialist
		Monet: Gare Saint-Lazare
		first public telephones (U.S.)
		Thomas Alva Edison invents phonograph
		Third impressionist exhibition, Paris
		Society for the Preservation of Ancient Buildings founded
1878		Microphone invented by David Hughes
		first bicycles in U.S. manufactured (A.A. Pope)
		first electric street lighting - London
		Auguste Renoir (d. 1919): Le Moulin de la Galette
		(but see 1876 - is this another one?)
		Edgar Degas (-1917):The Glass of Absinthe, Prima Ballerina
		First popular musical comedy?? Gilbert & Sullivan: H.M.S.  Pinafore
1879		Henry George: Progress and Poverty
		Paul Cezanne (d. 1906): Fruit Bowl, Glass, & Apples
1880		Thomas Alva Edison and J.W. Swan independently invent
		incandescent lamp (=first practical electric light bulb) 1880?
		London's first telephone exchange
		canned fruits and meats first appear in stores
		Carnegie develops first large steel furnace
		Captain Boycott, land agent in Mayo, Ireland is "boycotted"
		for refusing to accept rents fixed by his tenants
		Vincent Van Gogh begins painting
1880s		-- first generation born after 1848 reaches its 20s:
		Van Gogh, Freud, Shaw, Baden-Powell, Seurat, Mahler,
		Steiner, Debussy, Delius, Much, Touluse-Lautrec, Yeats --
		First land-use zoning: Modesto, California: attempt
		to control the spread of Chinese laundaries
		bicycling clubs, U.K.
1881		first of all cabarets "Chat Noir" founded in Paris
		Icaria Speranza community founded, Sonoma County, Calif
		Tuskegee Institute founded by Booker T. Washington
		Rational Dress Society, U.K.
1882		Edison designs first hydroelectric plant, Wisconsin
		Manet: "Bar aux Folies-Bergere"
		Nietzsche (28): Beyond Good and Evil
		Cezanne: "Self Portrait"  (wasn't this sort of pre-cubist?)
1883		The Bitter Cry of Outcast London: Andrew Mearns
		The Fellowship of the New Life, U.K.
		Fabian Society founded, London; Shaw joins 1884
		Nietzsche: Thus Spake Zarathustra
		first synthetic fiber produced (Eng. scientist Sir Joseph Swan)
		first skyscraper built in Chicago (ten stories)
		Buffalo Bill Cody organizes "Wild West Show"
		Bismarck introduces sickness insurance in Germany
		Howard Williams: The Ethics of Diet popularizes
		vegetarian diet in U.K.
1884		new recession U.S.
		George Eastman: sensitized roll film
		Gottlieb Daimler: internal combusion engine = automobile
		Georges Seurat (25): Bathers
		Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (20) moves to Montmartre
		National Footpaths Preservation Society, U.K.
		Art Workers' Guild, U.K.
		first regular comic strip, U.K. (Ally Sloper's Half Holiday)
1885		Karl Benz builds single-cylinder engine for motor car
		Gottlieb Daimler: motorcycle
		first English electrical tram car (Blackpool)
1886	Feb 8	London: meeting of 3-5000 unemployed workers in Trafalgar Square
		met by 600 police officers, goes into riot
1886		1400+ strikes (1881-85, average 500/year)
1886	May	U.S.: nationwide strikes for 8-hour day
		Haymarket strike for 8 hour day & bombing, Chicago
1886		Farmers Alliance joins with Knights of Labor to become Populist movement
1886	fall	Henry George, running as Independent Labor Party nominee
		for mayor of New York, comes in second
1886		Kaweah Colony, site of present Yosemite Natl Park, Calif (to 1902)
		American Federation of Labor founded
		Eighth and last Impressionist Exhibition, Paris
		Apache leader Geronimo surrenders, Apaches sent to ?p.o.w.
		?camps in Florida and Oklahoma
1887		Allotment Act: Indian tribal holdings broken up into
		individual holdings
		Fabian Society (led by Sidney Webb & Bernard Shaw):
		Facts for Socialists
		Van Gogh: "Moulin de la Galette"  huh??
1887	Oct 23	London: huge crowds gathering daily in Hyde Park and Trafalgar
		Square to hear speeches turns into mob
	Nov 12	Trafalgar Square police defeat
		Edward Bellamy: Looking Backward
1888		"police battle unemployed dmnstrtrs, Trafalgar Sq (same?)
		Nikola Tesla constructs A.C. electric motor
		George Eastman perfects "Kodak" box camera
		J.B. Dunlop invents pneumatic tire
		William Burroughs: commerically practical adding-list machine
		first of all beauty contests held: Spa, Belgium
		"Jack the Ripper" murders six women in London
		Port Sunlight model village
		Charles Ashbee starts Guild & School of Handicraft, Whitechapel
		Paul Gauguin: "The Vision After the Sermon"
		Van Gogh: "The Yellow Chair"
1888-89		Burlington strike
1889		London Dock Strike
		Oklahoma is opened to non-Indian settlement
		Punch card system created by H. Hollerith
		Moulin Rouge opens (Place Blanche)
		Edward Carpenter: Civilization: Its Cause and Cure (U.K.)
		Abbotsholme School founded, Derbyshire  (explain)
		Jan Addams sets up Hull House in immigrant slums of Chicago
		Vincent Van Gogh: Wheat Field and Cypress Trees
1889-	90	Methwold Fruit Farm Colony, Norfolk
1890		Standard Oil becomes the first U.S. industrial `Trust'
		Sherman Anti-Trust Law
		Mississippi becomes first Southern state to draw up
		new constitution to control who could vote
		Sitting Bull, Sioux leader, assassinated, Sioux sought refuge at Pine Ridge
	Dec	(last Indian massacre) Wounded Knee, South Dakota: U.S. army kills 300 of 350
		Vincent Van Gogh dies (37!?)
		U.K.: William Morris: News from Nowhere (describes socialist utopia)
		Jacob Riis (Danish sociologist studying U.S.): How the Other Half Lives
		Sir James Frazer: The Golden Bough
		Healthy and Artistic Dress Union, U.K.
		"Comic Cuts" and "Chips" comic papers, U.K. (-1953)
1890s		-- first generation born after birth of modern Europe 187O
		reaches its 20s: Dreiser, Mann, Proust, Gertrude Stein,
		Jack London, Rilke, Robert Frost --  "the Gay Nineties"
		Classic Bohemian society in Paris's Latin Quarter;
		Four Arts Balls held yearly;
		Toulouse-Lautrec, Jarry, Bonnard, Gide, Mallarme, etc.
		Railways permit middle class to move to countryside around
		London (& start of Back To The Land movement)
		first public bathing place on the river at Cambridge (men only)
		(1890s: diptheria, typhoid, smallpox & dysentery epidemics)
		Racist legislation in New Orleans forces Creoles, among
		the prosperous families of the city, into social &
		occupational contact with blacks; leads to changes in the
		music, as Creoles are educated & could read music
1891		first(?) U.S. miners strike, Tennessee
1891-3		Gauguin settles and paints in Tahiti 
1892		strikes all over the U.S.:  iron & steel workers;
		gen strike New Orleans; railroad strike Buffalo NY; 
		miners strike Coeur d'Alene, Idaho; Homestead steelworkers, Pennsylvania
		U.S.: Populist candidates in presidential and other elections
		Diesel patents his internal combustion engine
		First automatic telephone switchboard
		Bedales School, Sussex
		Home Colonization Society founded
		Monet begins series of paintings of Rouen Cathedral (-1895)
		Toulouse-Lautrec: "At the Moulin Rouge"
		first newspaper comic strips in U.S. newspapers (S.F. Examiner)
1893		Depression (worst in US so far), & riots in California
		U.S. adopts single gold standard, basis of capital centralism
		Henry Ford builds his first car
		George Poore, M.D.: Essays in Rural Hygiene: introduces
		earth closet in Britain
		Edvard Munch: The Scream
		ART NOUVEAU appears in Europe
		Buddy Bolden (14) is "king" of black Nola music
1894		Coxey leads mass march of unemployed to Washington
		Pullman Strike, Pres. Cleveland sends troops to put down;
		Eugene Debs, who helped organized it, sent to prison for six months
		Altruria community, Sonoma County, Calif (to 1895)
		Populist Party gets 40% of congressional elections vote
		Aubrey Beardsley (22) drawings for Salome
1895		Rontgen discovers x-rays
		Marconi invents radio (=wireless) telgraph
		Maryland Colony, Essex: first intensive agricultural
		coloney for city market (lasted 10+ years)
		Bouesville (ck spell) model village (Cadbury chocolate)
		first public film show, Paris (Hotel Scribe)
		H.G. Wells: The Time Machine
		Art Nouveau style predominates
1895-6		Bohemian "Les Jeunes" in San Francisco publish journal "The Lark"
1896		Supreme Court ruling against Homer Adolph Plessy for refusing
		to occupy a seat in the colored car of a Louisiana train
		sets up the "separate but equal" doctrine
		Populists enticed into Democratic Party to elect
		William Jennings Bryan, who lost anyway, to Republican
		William McKinley, supported by the first massive money campaign
		"La Boheme" - opera by Puccini based on Murger's work,
		opens in Turin, popularizes bohemian life
		"Die Jugend" & "Simplicissimus" Ger. art magazines, Munich
		Hearst starts first comics newspaper supplement
when?		discovery of gold in Black Hills of Dakota brings vast
		new influx of white settlers into Sioux territory
1896		Sioux and Cheyenne defeat Custer at the battle of 
		Little Big Horn; later (when?) defeated at Tongue River Valley
1896-7		Purleigh Colony, Essex (commune) -1898
		Whiteway Colony, Cotswalds (proposed to be deeded to God) -1901
1897		Royal Automobile Club founded, London
		Vienna: Klimt, Schiele and others: first Secessionist exhibition
		William Morris: Forecasts of the Coming Century (posth.)(get this)
		Henri Rousseau: "Sleeping Gypsy"
		In the wake of the opening of a large U.S. Navy base in
		New Orleans, Alderman Charles Storyville sponsors an
		ordinance to limit prostitution to one area of the city,
		bordered by the Mississippi River, Perdido & Basin Streets;
		it is nicknamed "Storyville" and becomes the center for
		the development of ragtime piano (Jelly Roll Morton, etc.)
1898		U.S. fights Spanish-American War
		photographs first taken using artificial light
		Paris Metro opened
		Ebenezer Howard: Garden Cities of To-Morrow proposes 
		suburban planned developments with their own employment
		UK: Folk Song Society founded
		Aubrey Beardsley dies (26)
		H.G. Wells: The War of the Worlds
		Alfred Jarry: Ubu Roi
		The MacKintosh School of Art, Glasgow: art nouveau architecture
		Peter Kropotkin: Fields, Factories and Workshops (explain)
		First ragtime song published 1897, by twelve months later
		the first dance craze (?Scott Jopline's Maple Leaf Rag -
		sold 1 million copies in U.S. alone)
1899		first magnetic recording of sound
		London County Council buys land for first suburb, connected by 
		electric railway (Totterdown Fields, opened 1903),
		meant to relieve crowding in inner city slums
1890-	1914	Invention of: the telephone, cheap camera, phonograph,
		rotary press & linotype, photoengraving, railroad
		air-brake & sleeping car, electric street car, skyscraper,
		suspension bridge, motor vehicles, airplane, typewriter,
		bicycle, electric light, motion picture, public library,
		scientific medicine, department store, ocean liner,
		refrigeration, elecvator, sewing machine, gas stove,
		steam heating, hot running water  + traffic light
		Also: Art Nouveau: Vienna, London, Paris,
		Munich, Barcelona, Glasgow, San Francisco
1900		Sigmund Freud: Interpretation of Dreams
		L. Frank Baum: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
		The Cake Walk becomes the most fashionable dance
		Silent Film era begins
1900-2		214 Negro lynchings
1900s		Start and growth of the Wandervogel movement in Germany
1901		First U.S. legislation to set up building codes,
		meant to improve living conditions in big city slums
		First London housing co-op founded: Ealing Tenants Limited
		Marconi transmits telegraphic radio messages from Cornwall
		to Newfoundland
		William Maybach, technical director at the Daimler works,
		constructs the first Mercedes car
		J.P. Morgan organizes U.S. Steel Corporation
		Frank Norris: The Octopus  (exposes rr monopolies)
		Rudolf Steiner founds anthroposophy
		H.G. Wells: Anticipations predicts car-only motorways (get this)
		Ragtime jazz develops in U.S.
1902		Coal strike in U.S., May-Oct
		William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience
		Enrico Caruso makes his first phonograph recording
1903		Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully fly a powered airplane
		(first manned flight)
		First Garden City started, built by co-operative association:
		Letchworth, England (north of London)
1904		War between Japan and Russia - first time U.S. gets
		involved as a world power
		economic recession
		New York City opens first subway segment
		10-hour work day: France
		first radio transmission of music (Austria)
		first practical photoelectric cell (Elster)
		first ultraviolet lamps
		Rolls-Royce Company founded
		first telgraphic transmission of photographs
		New York policeman arrests woman for smoking cigarette in public
		Jean Jaures issues socialist newspaper "L'Humanite", Paris
		Ivan Pavlov wins Nobel prize (explain)  ?wrong?
		Freud: The Psychopathology of Everyday Life
		Max Weber: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
		James Barrie: Peter Pan
		Herman Hesse (27): Peter Camenzind (first book)
1905	June	Niagara Movement first meeting, called by W.E.B. Du Bois
	June	I.W.W. (Wobblies) founded, Chicago, by William Haywood,
		Mother Jones, Father Thomas J. Hagerty, Lucy Parsons, 
		Daniel De Leon, & Eugene V. Debs and 200 others
1905		street fighting in Petersburg crushed by police 
		Sinn Fein Party founded, Dublin
		Jack London runs for mayor of ??
		First Fauve exhibit (Paris) (Matisse, Roualt +)
		Bohemians of Carmel-by-the-Sea, Calif.: George Sterling, 
		Jack London, Mary Austin, etc. roughing it
		Jack London: The Road - about hobo life
		Hermann Hesse: Unterm Rad
		first regular cinema established (Pittsburgh, Pa),
		Alternative schools start, U.K.: St. Christopher's
		(near Letchworth Garden City)
		Albert Einstein (26): Special Theory of Relativity
		first neon light signs
		Nipsell's Farm, Essex: intensive cultivation
		Debussy: "Golliwogs Cakewalk"

1906		Nightshift work for women internationally forbidden
		First radio program of voice and music, U.S.
		First parkway started, Long Island: limited-access highway 
		designed for private-car traffic only, and landscaped
		Upton Sinclair: The Jungle (Chicago stockyard)
		-> U.S. Pure Food and Drugs Act
		Jack London: The Iron Heel
		F.A. Morton: The Simple Life on Four Acres
		(fourth in Cottage Farm Series by simple-life publisher
		A.C. Fifield)
		Buddy Bolden, 28, the first "king" of New Orleans Storyville
		music, stops playing
1907		Depression(?) in US: 
		Panic of 1907 causes run on banks stopped by J.P. Morgan's
		importation of $100 million in gold from Europe
		Pres. Theodore Roosevelt bars Japanese from immigrating to U.S.
		First suburb specifically based on the automobile:
		Country Club District, Kansas City (& at low density)
		Louis Lumiere develops process for color photography
		Alice B. Toklas & Gertrude Stein move to Europe 
		First Cubist exhibition, Paris
		Pablo Picasso (25) : "Les Demoiselles d'Avignon" 
		Claude Monet painting water lilies at Giverny
		Henri Rousseau: "The Snake Charmer"
		Montessori [explain]
		Baden-Powell founds Boy Scouts
1908	August	Springfield, Illinois: white woman's accusation of Negro
		rape (later retracted) sets off riot which destroys Negro 
		businesses and ransacks Negro homes; Negro barber and
		84 year old Negro man, married to white woman 30
		years, lynched; 5000 militia sent in to suppress
1908		First steel and glass building (Berlin factory)
		General Motors Corporation formed
		Ford Motor Company produces first Model "T"
		Fauves works first shown in U.S.
		Matisse coins the term "Cubism"
		Gertrude Stein: Three Lives
		Isadora Duncan becomes popular interpreter of dance
		"Ashcan School" founded - realistic portrayals of life:
		Robert Henri, John Sloan, George Luks, William Glackens,
		George Bellows, Everett Shinn
1909		Commercial manufacture of Bakelite, to be used in plastics
		Spokane, Washington: 600 Wobblies arrested for free speech
		Futurist manifesto published, Italy
		Vassily Kandinsky's first abstract paintings
		Henri Matisse: Harmony in Red (Red Room)
		Sergei Diaghilev: first Ballet Russe presentation, Paris
1910		NAACP formed
		first Socialist elected to Congress	
		Henri Rousseau: The Dream  (& dies)
		Erik Satie starts composing again
		Alfred Stieglitz's 291 Gallery, NY
		Frank Lloyd Wright's architecture becoming well known
		the "week-end" becomes popular in the U.S.
		South American tango popular in Europe and U.S.

1910s		Paris: Utrillo, Apollinaire, Braque, Modigliani, Derain, Picasso, Gertrude Stein, 
		Andre Gide, Brancusi, Lipchitz, Legere, Soutine, Chagall
		The hobble skirt, which could daringly expose 5-8 inches of ankle.

1911		Taylor publishes book on "scientific management" of labor
		Fire at the unionized Triangle Shirtwaist Company, NY
		Thousands arrested in Fresno, Calif free speech fight
		and free speech fight in Aberdeen, Washington
		First 12 states pass workmen's compensation laws
		73 Socialist mayors & 1200 Socialist city officials in 
		340 cities elected
		term "Expressionism" first used for Fauves
		T.S. Eliot: The Lovesong of J. Alfred Prufrock
		Hermann Hesse: Journey to India
		Picasso & Braque start painting fragmented forms
		1910-11 First use of `jazz' to describe Nola music style
		Heyday of Nola jazz, including Freddie Keppard, Edward
		`Kid' Ory, and especially Joe `King' Oliver (26),
		who merged hot music with the smoothness of the Creole bands.
		Louis Armstrong (12) starts visits to Storyville to hear them.
		Sidney Bechet, age 14, starts to play publicly with Bunk
		Johnson's band.
	May 1	election of Socialist governments in over 20 U.S. cities
		(plus Eugene Debs gets 900,000 votes for President)
		Chinese Revolution - Sun Yat-sen becomes first president
1912	Jan-Mar	IWW helps with American Woolen Company strikes, Lawrence, Mass;
		children sent to families in New York City to be taken care of
		San Diego Wobbly free-speech arrests
		Women Suffrage parades +
		79 Socialist majors & larger number of Demo & Rep reform
		mayors elected throughout the US
		Polish chemist coins the term "vitamine"
		Cloud chamber photographs detect protons and electrons
		S.S. Titanic sinks on maiden voyage: 1,513 drowned
		C.G. Jung: The Theory of Psychoanalysis
		Picasso & Braque start cubist collage
		Marcel Duchamp: "The Bride"
		Kandinsky (Munich) & Delauney & Kupka (Paris): abstraction
		Stravinsky: "Sacre du Printemps" (riot at ?Paris? premiere)
		Arnold Schonberg (Vienna): 12-tone ?scale?

1912	-17	Greenwich Village: John Reed, xx
		at Mabel Dodge's Wednesday evenings salons
		& ("before & after WWI") Gertrude Stein's Saturday
		gatherings in Paris: Sylvia Beach, Sherwood Anderson,
		Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, xx

1913	June	Paterson Strike Pageant at Madison Square Garden, NYC
	Sept	Colorado coal strike starts
1913		Henry Ford brings together techniques to begin first
		mass-production plant (for automobiles), Highland Park (Mich??)
		Federal income tax introduced in US through 16th Amendment
		Marcel Proust: first part of A la recherche du temps perdu
		Matisse invents the term "Cubism"
		Intl Exhibition of Modern Art at NY Armory introduces
		introduces modernism to US (cubists & futurists
		including Duchamp: "Nude Descending a Staircase";
		Marcel Duchamp starts creating "readymades" including 
		the "Bicycle Wheel" and the "Bottle Rack"
		D.H. Lawrence (28): Sons and Lovers
		The foxtrot
		first Chaplin movies
		Albert Schweitzer opens hospital in Lambarene, French Congo
		Apaches allowed to move to reservations in Oklahoma & New Mexico

1914	April	Ludlow Massacre ends Colorado coal strike
		Irving Berlin  ?first pop?
		Giorgio De Chirico: "Mystery and Melancholy of a Street"
		Llano del Rio socialist community, Antelope Valley, Calif (to 1917/18)
		WORLD WAR I starts in Europe

1915		Joe Hill executed in Utah
		Negro migration from the south (some 90% still there) begins,
		as the war cuts off flow of immigration to the north
		and work is available in munitions and other factories
		First transcontinental phone call
		Patrick Geddes: Cities in Evolution - predicts megalopolis
		Margaret Sanger jailed for writing Family Limitation,
		first book on birth control
		Classic New Orleans jazz heyday
		Francis Picabia & Duchamp's first trip to US (NY); 
		meet Alfred Stieglitz & Picabia & Man Ray: readymades
		Charlie Chaplin: The Tramp
		(Tetanus epidemics in the trenches)

1916	spring	Verdun
	summer	San Francisco Preparedness Parade bomb kills 9 people;
		Tom Mooney & Warren Billings arrested & spend 20 years in prison
		Margaret Sanger joins in opening first birth control clinic
		Jazz sweeps the U.S.
1916	Feb 5	Dada born as conscientious objectors meet in Zurich: 
		Hugo Ball (German poet & philosopher); Tristan Tzara 
		(Romanian poet); Marcel Janco (Romanian poet and painter); 
		Hans Arp (Alsatian, later a sculptor) - first "Cabaret
		Voltaire" at Hollandische Malerei bar.
	Jun 23	Cabaret Voltaire shut down by public demand.
(1916		Rabindrnath Tagore visits US)
		James Joyce: Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man

1917		Socialist gains in elections
	Apr 6	US enters WORLD WAR I
	summer	Socialist antiwar meetings draw 5000, 10,000, 20,000
	June	Espionage Act
	July	First open urban riot ?involving black & white youths?: East St Louis
	July 1	Boston: 8000 anti-war marchers
	when?	The Masses and other periodicals containing antiwar
		articles banned from the mails
		65,000 conscientious objectors; 900 imprisoned under
		Espionage Act; 450 arrested in Green Corn anti-draft Rebellion
	Sept	Dept of Justice raids on 48 IWW meeting halls; 
		165 Wobblies arrested for conspiracy to hider the draft
	Nov	Russian Bolshevik/Communist "October" Revolution
	when?	Four women arrested for picketing White House for woman's
		suffrage sentenced to six months in jail
		I.W.W. demos against war result in raids on their offices
		New Orleans Storyville brothels section shut by Secretary of 
		Navy; increases trend of blacks, including musicians, already 
		heading north due to lynchings (3,600 in the south and
		parts of the midwest since the Civil War) and a southern
		economic depression; many wind up in Chicago & other
		northern cities. Sidney Bechet (20) joins a tour that goes thru
		Chicago and stays there.
		Original Dixieland Jazz Band (all-white musicians) opens in 
		New York and first ever jazz recordings made by them

1918	early	Picabia in Zurich meets the Dadaists	
	June	Eugene V. Debs sentenced to 10 years for violating the 
		Espionage (and sedition) Act (commuted 1921)
	Oct-Nov	street fighting in Berlin: November revolution -
		councils of workers, soldiers, intellectuals take over governing
		summer: Berlin Dada gives numerous performances trying
		to influence Germans to (not give in)  [Greil Marcus]
		but ?Weimer Republic ?gradually takes over
	Nov	WORLD WAR I ends: 8.5 mill dead, 21 mill wounded,
		7.5 mill prisoners and missing
		+worldwide influenza epidemic, kills 22 million by 1920

		Llano del Rio community, Louisiana founded (to 1938)
		Marcel Duchamp: Tu m'
		Aldous Huxley (24): The Defeat of Youth
		Pinero: "The Freaks, an Idyll of Suburbia" London  whaa?
		Joe `King' Oliver and Freddie Keppard join Sidney Bechet (21)
		in Chicago, at the Royal Gardens & the Dreamland Cafe;
		1918-20 Stravinsky writes 3 pieces based on black music

1919	Jan 5	Spartacists, led by Karl Liebknecht & Rosa Luxemburg,
		lead revolt to renew November revolution - lasts 6 days
		(in Berlin); when? Rosa Luxembourg assassinated (49)
	Jan 16	Prohibition (18th amendment) ratified by 36th state (starts 1920)
	Feb	Seattle general strike
	when?	Eugene V. Debs and Scott Nearing tried under
		the Espionage and Sedition Laws for anti-war positions, 
		Debs sent to penitentiary at 63 for 32 months (see 1918)
19	July 27	Chicago beach riot involving white & black youths: one of 
		bloodiest in US history: 15 white, 23 Negroes dead; 537 injured
		[Jazz history book said "summer of black riots" - see below]
	Sept	Allegeny County (Penn?) steel mill strike
	Dec 21	Palmer Raids: 249 aliens rounded up and set to U.S.S.R.,
		including Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman

		Recession(?) in U.S.
		Amer. steel strike til Jan 1920; NY dock workers strike
		Over 70 Negroes lynched, including 10 soldiers just back from 
		the war; 25 riots in the summer (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, 
		Georgia, Mississippi, Washington D.C., and Chicago - 13 day 
		riot - first big Northern race-riot (36 killed, 536 injured)
		Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association has 
		two million members
		[blacks, back from WWI, but still not treated as equals]
		League of Nations first meeting
		UK: Addison Act provides for building of millions of subsidized
		dwellings in suburbs, all dependent on London for employment
		Robert Goddard publication starts American rocketry
		First nonstop flight across Atlantic
		Jazz arrives in Europe: Sidney Bechet (22) makes first tour
		Hermann Hesse: Demian
		Proust starts publication of La Recherche du Temps Perdu
		Picabia & Duchamp to Paris; spread Dadaism to Andre Breton,
		Louis Aragon, Philippe Soupault, Paul Eluard
		Bauhaus school of design founded, Germany

1920	Jan	4000 aliens arrested & deported
	spring	two friends of man among those arrested in January
		arrested for carrying guns in self defense: Sacco & Vanzetti
		imprisoned for 7 years, electrocuted Aug 1927
	Aug 26	19th amendment, giving women the vote, ratified

1920		KKK revived and spread North
		unemployment drops
		wealth concentrates to the wealthiest
		Bomb explosion in Wall St kills 35, wounds 130
1920		The Great Red Scare  
1920??		1921?? immigration to U.S. cut off
1920		Unemployment insurance introduced in U.K. and Austria
		Adolf Hitler announces his 25-point program in Munich
		First  (?hmmm) commercial radio broadcasts 
1920		Sinclair Lewis: Main Street
		Bertrand Russell: The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism
		Jan: Picabia & Tristan Tzara to Paris 
		Big Year of Dada, & breakup (ended 1922)
		First Intl Dada Festival, Berlin, including
		Duchamp's Mona Lisa with beard & goatee; Max Ernst +
		["Visitors to exh of Dadaist Art in Cologne are allowed to
		smash paintings"]
		Duchamp returns to NY
		First blues recorded (by Mamie Smith)

1920s		US: flappers, Isadora Duncan (d. 1927)
		U.S.: for the first time suburbs growing faster (2x as fast) 
		than, and by almost as many people as, cities
		& transit systems for first time report
		falling ridership and loss of profits
		1920-25 Half of US literature written in Greenwich Village
		Paris: Hemingway, Stein, John Dos Passos, Sherwood Anderson +
		First (Freudian) psychiatric clinic opened (Berlin),
		International Journal of Psycho-Analysis started

1921	May	Race-riot, Tulsa, Oklahoma (50 whites, 200 Negros killed)
		Saccho and Vanzaetti found guilty of murder
		KKK activities become violent throughout southern U.S.
		German reparation payments set; rapid fall of Ger mark,
		inflation starts; Hitler's storm troopers (SA) begin 
		terrorizing political opponents
		First fast-food outlet (White Castle chain, Kansas City)
		Swiss physician M.O. Bircher-Benner recommends the intake
		of more uncooked foods in The Fundaments of Our Nutrition
		Summerhill School founded (explain)
		Ulysses trial (US v The Little Review) - lost, but 
		The Little Review continues publishing excerpts anyway
		D.H. Lawrence: Women in Love
		Aldous Huxley (27): Chrome Yellow
		Pablo Picasso: Three Musicians

1922		Stockmarket "boom" starts in US after depression
		New KKK, assuming the name of the post-Civil War organization,
		gains political power in U.S.
		Gandhi sentenced to six years prison for civil
		disobedience  (for what was this?)
		Mussolini's March on Rome & forms Fascist government
		Dr. Marie Stopes holds mtgs in London advocating birth control
		Joe `King' Oliver calls Louis Armstrong (22) to join his band in Chicago
		T.S. Eliot: The Wasteland
		e.e. cummings: first book of poetry
		James Joyce: Ulysses [written 1914-21];
		Sylvia Beach publishes in Paris, banned in U.S. & U.K.
		["U.S. Post Office burns 500 copies upon arrival in U.S."]
		Hermann Hesse: Siddhartha
		(Charleston dance first seen in a show "Liza" in Harlem)

1923		Teapot Dome oil scandal 
		World's first car-based shopping centre started:
		Country Club Plaza in Country Club District, Kansas City
		U.S. traffic congestion in some cities so bad that there is
		talk of barring cars from downtown streets
		First birth-control clinic opens in NY
		200,000 attend tri-state conclave of KKK, Kokomo, Ind.;
		martial law established in Oklahoma for protection from KKK
		Value of German darks drops against dollar;
		Hitler attempts coup d'etat
		"Bix" Beiderbecke organizes jazz band in Chicago
		(?including Tommy Dorsey)
		(April) first recordings by a black jazz band:
		Joseph "King" Oliver's band; also "Jelly Roll" Morton records
		Louis Armstrong leading the start of The Jazz Age in Chicago
		(Edna St. Vincent Millay poetry - Pulitzer Prize)
		Duchamp returns to Paris, stops doing art (-> chess)
		Cotton Club opens, NYC's Harlem (by white gangsters for
		white after-theater guests): 142nd St & Lenox Ave.

	July	Dada ends with a performance of Tristan Tzara's play 
		"Le Coeur a(\) Gas in Paris when a battle erupts
		between the followers of Tzara & the followers of Breton, 
		and police are called in.
		[Associated w Dada: Kurt Schwitters, Francis Picabia,
		Philippe Soupault, Jean Cocteau, Marcel Duchamp, Man
		Ray, and Andre Breton - besides the founders.)

1924		U.S. bill limits immigrants, excludes all Japanese
		J. Edgar Hoover appointed director FBI
		Hitler sentenced to 5 years; released after 8 months
		Gandhi fasts to protest Hindu/Moslem feuds
		Le Corbusier: The City of Tomorrow  (saw as 1929 also)
		Insecticides used for first time
		Big Year of Surrealism (First Manifesto): led by Andre Breton,
		w Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Paul Delvaux, Joan Miro, Rene Magritte
		(Black Bottom dance first seen in show: `Dinah' in Harlem)
		Mid-day dresses/skirts

1925		(John T.) Scopes trial, Tennessee (H.L. Mencken & 
		Clarence Darrow - vs. William Jennings Bryan)
		First woman governor - Nellie Tayloe Ross, Wyoming
		Hitler reorganizes Nazi Party (27,000 members), publishes
		Mein Kampf vol. 1
1925	Aug	A. Philip Randolph heads new Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
1925		La Revue Negre, with Josephine Baker (20), starts new 
		Paris jazz rage: "Jazz, Chicago style, arrives in Europe"
		The Charleston (invented ca 1904, 1907) seen by whites in
		Broadway show "Runnin Wild" & becomes dance craze
		[or at least at the Cotton Club, intro'd by Eleida Webb; - 1927]
		Charlie Chaplin: The Gold Rush; Garbo
		Franz Kafka: The Trial  published (posth.) (d.1924)
		F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby
		Benton MacKay: `The New Exploration' in Survey magazine
		predicts that America will have to become more European;
		also develops the idea of the townless highway, or `motorway'
		Scotch inventor John Logie Baird transmits recognizable
		human features by television

1925-	1950	Golden Age of Radio

1926		Goddard fires first liquid fuel rocket
		Werner Heisenberg further develops the quantum theory 
		(is this the uncertainty principle?)
		First vitamin (B) isolated in pure form
		Kodak produces first 16mm movie film
		Supreme Court establishes constitutionality of zoning
		Fascist youth organizations in Italy & Germ founded
		(co-opting Wandervogel movement?)
		Jelly Roll Morton's and Duke Ellington's first records appear
		Black Bottom dance seen in Broadway show "Scandels of 1926"
		Ernest Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises
		Franz Kafka: The Castle published (posth.)
		A.A. Milne: Winnie the Pooh
		Duchamp's The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors Even
		shown at the Brooklyn Museum in a "definitive stage of incompletion"

1927		Sacco and Vanzetti executed
		"Black Friday" in Germany: economic system collapses
		Socialists riot in Vienna/general strike following
		acquittal of Nazis for political murder
		Building 85% of world's cars, US has 1 for every 5 Americans
		or 1 for approximately 2 families (?= half families had cars?)
		(is this the height of 20s car ownership?)
		Lindbergh flies "Spirit of St. Louis" monoplane, NY to Paris
		I.P. Pavlov: Conditioned Responses
		Josephine Baker is Parisian star
		The first talkie film (Al Jolson in "The Jazz Singer")
		Hermann Hesse: Steppenwolf
		Kafka: Amerika  (posth.)
		Sinclair Lewis: Elmer Gantry
		Upton Sinclair: Oil!
		Marcel Proust: A la recherche du temps perdu (posth.)
		Isadora Duncan dies
		Edward Hopper: "Manhattan Bridge" (Amer. modern)
		Slow fox trot 

1928		First suburb planned with clustered housing in neighborhood 
		units unbroken by traffic streets: Radburn, New Jersey
		Planner Edward Bassett coins term `freeway' (New York Times)
		Margaret Mead: Coming of Age in Samoa
		G.B. Shaw: The Intelligent Woman's Guide to Soc & Cap
		Aldous Huxley: Point Counterpoint
		(Gershwin: "An American in Paris" - NY)
		D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover published
		in Italy but banned in U.S.
		Georgia O'Keeffe: "Nightwave" (Amer. abstract painting)
		Dali to Paris & joins Surrealists (main work 1929-34)
		First Mickey Mouse films (Disney)
		First color motion pictures exhibited by Eastman
		First scheduled television broadcasts (NY)  (? see 1939)
		J.L. Baird demonstrates color t.v.
		First restricted use of teleprinters & teletypewriters 
		Amelia Earhardt is first woman to fly across Atlantic
		Charleston is "worldwide" dance craze
1928-33		New housing construction drops 95%

1929		St. Valentine's Day Massacre: six notorious Chicago gangsters
		machine-gunned to death by rival gang
	spring	textile strikes through Carolinas and Tennessee
	Oct 28	U.S. Stock Exchange collapses (Black Friday)
		starting Great Depression, world economic crisis
	Oct 29	N.Y. Stock market drops xxx points (Blue Monday);
		U.S. securities lose 26 billion dollars in value
		First Howard Johnsons (Massachusetts)
		Talkies kill silent films
		Ernest Hemingway: A Farewell to Arms
		Eric Maria Remarque: All Quiet on the Western Front best seller
		Robert Graves: Goodby to All That (important?)
		Second Surrealist Manifesto
		Virginia Woolf: A Room of One's Own
		Georgia O'Keeffe: "Black Flower and Blue Larkspur"
		End of 1920s- NY Harlem (Negro) ballrooms: Small's Paradise, 
		the Renaissance, the Savoy: Lindy Hop - start of r&r rhythms & fast tempo
		Cab Calloway is a hit at NYC's (Harlem) Savoy Ballroom

1930		Photoflash bulb; picture telegraphy service Brit-Germ
		Hermann Hesse: Narcissus & Goldmund
		Sinclair Lewis: Babbitt (Nobel Prize)
		Sigmund Freud: Civilization and Its Discontents
		Henri Matisse: "The Dance" (Fr expressionism) (reck: started
		much earlier)
		Paris: Alberto Giacometti (Swiss) creates first Surrealist 
		object `Suspended Ball'
		Bunuel & Dali: L'age d'Or (film)
		Piet Mondrian (i.e.)
		Skirt hemlines plunge to 8 inches from the floor (mid-calf)

1930s		Paris: Miller, Nin  +     Durrell??
		San Francisco: Black Cat Cafe
		(Marx Brothers)
		when? Duke Ellington & then Cab Calloway hit at Cotton Club

1931		Bankruptcy of Ger. Danatbank leads to closure of all Ger banks
		Ger millionaires support Nazi Party (800,000 members)
		Al "Scarface" Capone, gangster, jailed for income tax evasion
		First woman elected to U.S. Senate- Hattie Caraway (D-Ark)
		Empire State Building completed, NY
		Dali: "Persistence of Memory"
		Clark Gable begins Hollywood career
		Chaplin: "City Lights"
		Edward Hopper: "Route 6, Eastham"
		Sidney Bechet settled in Paris

1932		330 self-help organizations in 37 states, with 300,000 members
		Ger elections: Nazi Party majority in Reichstag
		Hitler quote   get this
	MyJn	Bonus March on Washington, troops drive out
	Nov	FDR ?elected, but Communist Party candidate gets more than a million votes
		Reconstruction Finance Corporation est by Congress to lend
		to rebuild US economy: 1.5 billion by year's end [before FDR?]
		Japan begins undercutting world market prices
		Hermann Hesse: A Journey to the East
		Black Elk Speaks: John Neihardt
		Brave New World: Aldous Huxley
		Louis-Ferdinand Celine: Voyage au bout de la nuit
		Childbirth Without Fear: Grantly Dick-Read
		Giacometti: The Palace at 4 A.M. created
		Calder: mobiles exhibited
		Shirley Temple's first film
		Amelia Earhart first woman to fly solo across Atlantic

1933		worst? year of Great Depression [when do soup kitchns etc start]
		Hitler - Ger Chancellor; book-burning, concentration camps,
		boycott of Jews
		FDR's hundred days of legislation: Agr Adjustment and Fed Emerg Relief Acts, 
		National Recovery Act and Farm Credit Act,
		Public Works Administration (PWA),
		Home Owners Loan Corporation (first low interest mortgages
		- to stem farm foreclosures), 
		US Securities Act: requires more info provided to investors 
	Apr 19	US goes off gold standard
	Dec 5	Prohibition repeal ratification completed (21st amendment)
	Dec 6	James Joyce's Ulysses finally declared legal 
		and publishable in U.S.
		Dorothy Day & others start Catholic Worker newspaper,
		New York City; House of Hospitality opened "soon after"
		C.G. Jung: Modern Man in Search of a Soul
		Ralph Borsodi: Flight From The City
		Kandinsky and Klee leave Ger for Fr & Switz respectively;
		60,00 other artists (authors, actors, painters, musicians) leave Ger 1933-39
		George Orwell: Down and Out in Paris and London
		Gertrude Stein: The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas
		Mae West: "She Done Him Wrong"

1930s	early	Hollywood Production Code drives sex off the screen (after?)

1933-	42	Alan Lomax records Leadbelly, Jelly Roll Morton, Sonny Terry 
		& Brownie McGhee, many other folk & jazz musicians

1934	Jan 1	Prohibition ends in US		
		US Fed Farm Mortgage Corp; Civil Wks Emerg Relief Act
		FDR's Emergency Relief Appropriation Acts
		Federal Housing Authority (FHA) - powers to insure long-term 
		mortgage loans by private lenders for home construction
	spring	West Coast longshoremen's strike
		General Strikes: San Francisco, Minneapolis
	fall	Southern textile workers strike spreads throughout U.S.
		Upton Sinclair runs for governor for California + EPIC
		[and explain about worker co-ops]
1934		Henry Miller's Tropic of Cancer published ?in Paris
		(by Jack Kahane, Obelisk Press) but banned in the U.S.
		Jean Cocteau: La Machine infernale  important?
		Lindy Hop takes to the air with swing music

1935	Mar 19	Harlem uprising
	April	Resettlement Administration given power to use eminent
		domain to buy land for build new cities
		Wagner Act sets up National Labor Relations Board
		U.S. Social Security Act; Wealth Tax Act
		Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) organized by John L. Lewis
		Wilderness Society founded
		William `Count' Basie introduces Kansas City music at the
		Apollo Theatre in NYC: Jazz becomes `swing': easy,
		uncluttered, rhythmically flexible
		The Village Vanguard opened by Max Gordon in a cellar at
		178 Seventh Ave, NY as a jazz center

1936		48 sit-down strikes, beginning with Akron Firestone plant, Flint Fisher Body plant
		(Boulder/Hoover Dam completed)   & what else big projects?
		(Keynes - which is his important work?)
		London & NY Surrealist shows, including "Object",
		a fur-covered cup/plate & spoon by Meret Oppenheim
		Kenneth Patchen: first book (of poetry) published
		Chaplin: Modern Times
		Salvador Dali: Soft Construction with Boiled Beans: Premonition of Civil War
		Mondriaan: "Composition in Red and Blue"
	Aug	Benny Goodman debuts at the Palomar Ballroom, NY:
		swing music really takes off
		"Professor Longhair" invents rock & roll beat one night,
		while playing in New Orleans' Vieux Carre

1937		US: 477 sit-down strikes; gov statistics: half mill Amers
		involved in sitdown strikes bet Sept 36-May 37
		Bonneville Dam & Golden Gate Bridge opened
		Japanese start skirmishes which lead to war with China
		US Sup Court rules in favor of minimum wage law for women
		First jet engine built
		UK: BBC starts offering regular television programming 
		to 14,000 initial subscribers
		Sartre (age): La Nausee
		Richard Wright: Black Boy
		Picasso: "Guernica" (mural for Paris World Expo)
		Robert Johnson, legendary blues musician, dies (25)

1930s	late	Village Vanguard: Leonard Bernstein, Burl Ives, Pearl Bailey +

		Hitler invades Austria (Mar 14) [and Czechoslovakia ??]
		Nov. 10 Kristalnacht pogrom
		Recession in US (starts with Wall Street decline in 1937)
		Congress passes Fair Labor Standards Act, national child 
		labor law - first to be upheld by the Supreme Court
		(?=?) Forty hour work week established in US
		US Sup Court rules U of Missouri Law School must admit
		Negroes because of lack of other facilities in the area
		International Exhibit of Surrealism, Paris
		Jean Paul Sartre: Nausea  [must be the Eng translation]
		Antonin Artaud: The Theater and Its Double
		Radio production by Orson Welles of H.G. Wells'
		War of the Worlds causes panic
		Benny Goodman's band brings new style of jazz (heyday 1938,39)
		Lambeth Walk - fashionable dance
	Dec	Cafe Society opened at 2 Sheridan Square, NYC by Barney
		Josephson as first integrated night spot
		Billy Holiday (24) opened it and remained nine months
		20,000 television sets in service in NY City

1939		Stalin-Hitler non-agression Pact
	Apr 30	"First scheduled telecast" - US: FDR speaking at NY World's Fair opening
		but within months, television devpmt stopped for 7 yrs due to the war
1939	Sept 1	Hitler invades Poland
	Sept 3	Britain and France declare war on Germany: WORLD WAR II starts
1939		Pan American Airways begins regularly scheduled commercial
		flights between US and Europe
		Marion Anderson, barred from singing at the Daughters of the 
		American Revolution Hall, Washington DC, is invited by Eleanor 
		Roosevelt and others to sing at the Lincoln Memorial; 75,000 attend
		James Joyce: FInnegans Wake
		John Steinbeck: The Grapes of Wrath
		Yves Tanguy to US
		(movies: Wizard of Oz, Gone With the Wind)
		Pete Seeger drops out of Harvard, entertains striking
		dairy farmers, meets Alan Lomax and Woody Guthrie

1930s		Negro lynchings average fifty a year
1930s		US births, dropping lower and lower since industrialization
		drop to the lowest ever (only 7.3% increase in 
		population of US 1930 to 1940, including .5 mill immigrants)
		US pop 1940: 132 million      (Start to rise 1940-43)

1940		WORLD WAR II:Hitler invades Denmark, Norway, Holland (May), Belgium, France
		US: Smith Act criminalizes advocating to overthrow the
		government by force and violence
	when?	Selective Service bill introduced
		First big birth rise: 9 months after introduction
	Sept?	Selective Service Act passed
	Sept 27	FDR meets with A. Philip Randolph, president of
		Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters; Walter White, executive
		secretary NAACP; and T. Arnold Hill, acting secretary
		of the National Urban League to discuss employment
		discrimination, particularly desegregation of the
		armed forces. Army: 5,000 Negroes out of 269,023;
		Navy: 4,000 out of 160,997 - employed as messboys and labourers.
	Nov	FDR re-elected, in first election with significant Negro voters
		First U.S. inter-city motorway: Pennsylvania Turnpike
		& LA builds first motorway: Arroyo Seco Parkway 
		(now part of Pasadena Freeway) (opens Dec)
		Duke Ellington becomes know as composer and jazz pianist
		Ernest Hemingway: For Whom the Bell Tolls
		Arthur Koestler: Darkness at Noon
		Thomas Wolfe: You Can't Go Home Again (posth.)
		Eugene O'Neill: Long Day's Journey into Night" written - important?
		Salvador Dali to NY
		Chaplin: "The Great Dictator"
40	when?	Bertrand Russell judged unfit to teach at New York's City 
		College due to such unorthodox views as those published
		in his Marriage & Morals (1929); appointed to
		William James lectureship at Harvard University anyway
		Pete Seeger forms Almanac Singers with Lee Hays and many
		others; Woody Guthrie joins in June
		Cotton Club closes
		1940-42 Thelonius Monk (23) joins Kenny Clarke's house band 
		at Minton's in NYC; w Charlie `Bird' Parker (20 (sax), of Kansas
		City, and Dizzy Gillespie (23) (horn), who dropped in after 
		finishing at the Cotton Club, invents Modern Jazz: created 
		complex variations on chords to scare away no-talent jammers.
		Meanwhile, Kenny Clarke (26), the drummer, starts created
		the bop rhythm which freed the soloists.
		"Bop" was unlike the polished, sweet sounds of the Big Bands.

1941?	June??	Second big birth rise: 9 months after S.S. Act passed
	June	Hitler invades USSR
1941	June 25	A. Philip Randolph's (president Brotherhood of Sleeping
		Car Porters) calls off Negro march on Washington planned for 
		July 1 when FDR agrees to issue Executive Order 8802 banning 
		racial discrimination in defense industries and government 
		employment (creates Fair Employment Practices Committee)
	Dec 7	Japanese attack Pearl Harbor: US enters WORLD WAR II
		Jeannette Rankin, US Rep, casts sole dissenting vote in Congress
		against declaration of war against Japan
	when?!	Manhattan Project (intensive atomic research) begins
	when?	US Sup Court upholds Federal Wage and Hour Law restricting
		work of 16- and 18-year-olds and setting minimum wage for 
		business engaged in interstate commerce
1941		[record] Talking Union (?Almanac Singers ?w Pete Seeger?)
		Eric Fromm: Escape From Freedom
		Kenneth Patchen: Journal of Albion Moonlight
		Orson Welles: "Citizen Kane"
		Max Ernst to NY (then to Long Island & Sedona, Arizona)
		Bop/Jump & Jive dance, contests  [at least among blacks]

1942	June	Japanese lose battle for the first time: Midway Island
	Oct	Third big birth rise (10 months after Pearl Harbor)
1942		First electronic computer developed, US 
		Magnetic recording tape invented
		Duchamp back to NY
		Intl Surrealist Exhibit, NY, including the first
		`Happening': Duchamp's maze of twine (to involve the viewer)
		Peggy Guggenheim opens Art of This Century Gallery (surrealism)
		by then Surrealists Breton?, Masson, Man Ray, Kurt Seligman,
		and Matta from Chile, plus Chagall, Fernand Leger, 
		Piet Mondrian, and Jacques Lipchitz are all in U.S.
		Camus: The Stranger
		Erich Fromm: The Fear of Freedom  (is this the same?)
		Wilhelm Reich: The Function of the Orgasm
		Gilbert Murray founds Oxfam
		Skirts shorten (wartime rationing)

1943	Apr 19	Dr. Albert Hofman at Sandoz in Basle, Switzerland,
		resynthesizes LSD-25 in a search for a cure for
		migraines, & has visions (first synthesis 1938)
	summer	anti-Negro riots in Detroit and Harlem, cities whose labor
		population has been added to by influx of southern blacks
	June	Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) founded
	when?	US War Labor Board orders coal mines to be taken over by
		the govt when .5 million miners strike

1943		"Bop" becoming known;
		Rhythm & blues syncopated rhythm starts to emerge
		Lindy Hop yields to jitterbug
		Sartre: Being and Nothingness
		Hermann Hesse: The Glass Bead Game
		Zoot suit becomes popular attire among US hepcats
		(Infantile paralysis epidemic kills almost 1200 in US,
		cripples thousands more)

when?		43,000 draftees refused to fight, 6000 imprisoned;
		Conscientious objector camps established on West Coast,
		especially Walport, Oregon; many visit SF on leave

1944	July 15	Mrs. Irene Morgan arrested for not giving up Greyhound
		seat to white passenger on a ride from Virginia to Maryland
		(leads to 1946 Supreme Court anti-segregation decision)
	Nov	FDR re-elected for fourth term
	when?	Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. elected to Congress
		Cost of living in US rises almost 30%
		Bluesman Arthur "Big Boy" Cruddup records "Rock Me Mama"
		?using? the first electrified guitar, created by him 1940
		Sartre's No Exit opens in Paris
		T.S. Eliot: Four Quartets   (when was The Hollow Men)
		Jack Kerouac (22), Allen Ginsberg (18), William Borroughs (30)
		meet around Columbia University
		Bop recordings on the market.

1945	April	Allied forces attack Berlin; Hitler commits suicide
	May 7	Germany surrenders
	July 16	First atomic bomb explosion, Alamogordo, New Mexico
	Aug 6&9	Atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima, Nagasaki
	Sept 2	Surrender of Japan; WORLD WAR II ends
	when?	Republic of Vietnam proclaimed; French invade
		World Bank founded
		Henry Miller: The Airconditioned Nightmare
		George Orwell: Animal Farm

1946		First of 23 nuclear explosions 46-58, Bikini atoll
		first year of the Baby Boom (46-64) Postwar birth rise
		(1945: 2,873,000; 1946: 3.5 mill; 1947: 3.75 mill)
		[Storming Heaven p.94 sez Baby Boom height 54-64
		4 mill babies born/year]
		[1950s "baby boom in every industrialized country" - Hall)
	June	Dr. Benjamin Spock: The Common Sense Book of Baby & Child Care
		Start of the boom in sales of television sets (under 6000 manufactured)
		Xerography process invented
		ENIAC electronic brain built at Pennsylvania University
		Arthur Koestler: Darkness at Noon   earlier?
		Franz Kafka: Amerika   earlier?
		"Existentialists" center, St. Germain-des-Pres, Paris (1945-50)
		Buckminster Fuller designs Dymaxion House
		Pacifica Foundation founded
		Kerouac and Ginsberg meet Neal Cassady in New York City
		Pete Seeger moves to NY after getting out of the military,
		starts "People's Songs" (whatis)
		Josh White playing at Cafe Society Downtown (Sheridan
		Square, Greenwich Village) and Leadbelly around NY also

1946 -		Lynchings in the south approach 1918 levels as Negro
		G.I.s return, talk of getting the rights they fought for

1947		CIA chartered
		HUAC investigations into Hollywood; Hollywood 10 blacklisted
		Taft-Hartley Act restricts rights of labor unions
		Transistor invented
		"Flying saucers" reported in US
	Ap 9-23	Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) sponsors interstate
		bus ride to test June 3, 1946 Supreme Court ruling that Negro
		passengers could not be forced to sit at the back;
		Bayard Rustin, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Igal
		Roodenko, and Joseph Felmet serve 30 days on a chain gang
		Over 1 mill vets enroll in colleges under GI Bill of Rights
		Malabar Farm: Louis Bromfield
		The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam
		Jackson Pollock starts action painting (Abstract Expressionism)
		Dior's ankle-length dresses protested, ?but went back to long?
		Leon, brother of Barney Josephson, owner of Cafe Society, NYC,
		subpoened by HUAC; Columnists Westbrook Pegler & Walter Winchell
		attack Barney & club business drops; forced to close 1948

1947-57		series of Chicago riots as whites left inner city to Negroes

1947-50		Kerouac & Cassady make cross-country trips
1947-51		Marshall Plan: US farms and industries gear up to feed Europe
1948	Feb?	Gandhi assassinated
	Feb	Truman, in first `civil rights' message to Congress,
		asks for anti-lynching law 
	June	Drs. John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, & William P. Schockley
		of AT&T announce invention of the semiconductor transistor
	when?	UN? adopts "Human Rights ?Resolution" - US never adopted
	when?	USSR stops road and rail traffic bet Berlin and the west
	when?	House UnAmerican Activities Committee (HUAC)
		investigates Alger Hiss (of State Dept) case
	when?	Month-long strike by soft coal miners, US; injunction
		prevents nationwide rail strike; first escalator clause
		basing wage increases on cost-of-living inde in GM-UAW contract
	when?	Truman signs Selective Service Act, creating US's first 
		peacetime draft, and universal military training (includes ROTC)
	when?	US sends troops to Greece to support dictator
	when?	General Somoza's military take-over of elected
		Nicaraguan government (with US support?)
	when?	Tito of Yugoslavia breaks away from USSR Communist Party
	when?	Supreme Court knockdown of Texas white primary;
		750,000 Negroes register to vote in 12 southern states
1948	Nov	Truman re-elected (vs. Dewey)
		Levitts begin construction of first mass-produced suburb:
		Levittown, Long Island
		Huh? Fed rent control bill passed in US
		First McDonalds drive-in (San Bernardino, California)
		Long-play record invented (US)

		Nat King Cole's record of eden ahbez's song "Nature Boy" is a big hit
	July	Oriole's first record & the first "r&r", tho called r&b
		"It's Too Soon to Know" starts playing on Negro music radio stations
		Mechanization Takes Command - Siegfried Giedion
		B.F. Skinner: Walden Two
		George Orwell writes 1984 (originally titled 1948)
		Alfred C. Kinsey: Sexual Behavior in the Human Male
		Ed Sullivan television show starts
		Pete Seeger, Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman & Ronnie Gilbert, singing 
		in the Almanac Singers since the early 1940s, start The Weavers
		Summer: Ginsberg has mystical vision of Blake's flower +
		Malcolm Little, in prison, first hears about the teachings of Elijah Muhammed
		Lee Strasberg becomes Artistic Director of the Actors
		Studio, starts giving classes in the Stanislavsky "method"

1949		11 US Communists found guilty of conspiracy to overthrow govt
		NATO formed
		U.S. begins urban renewal with Housing Act
	Oct 1	People's Republic of China founded
		USSR tests its first atomic bomb
		Pacifica Foundation (founded 1946) starts first
		radio station, KPFA in Berkeley (April 15 - first show)
		Miles Davis: The Birth of the Cool album starts cool jazz
		Aldo Leopold: A Sand County Almanac
		Thomas Merton: The Seven Storey Mountain
		Nelson Algren: The Man with the Golden Arm
		T.S. Eliot: The Cocktail Party
		Joseph Campbell: The Hero with a Thousand Faces
		Arthur Miller: Death of a Salesman
		Weavers at Village Vanguard 6 months: NY discovers folk
		Josh White, Burl Ives, Earl Robinson "discovered"

1949-	54	Fats Domino, Ray Charles, Little Richard: first records

1950	start	military budget 12 billion out of total 40 billion U.S.budget
	Feb 9	Senator Joseph McCarthy announces he has a list of 
		205 State Department employees who are Communist Party members
	when?	Alger Hiss convicted of lying & spying for USSR
	when?	Truman instructs US Atomic Energy Comm to dev hydrogen bomb
	June 25	North Korea invades South Korea
		U.S. sends troops to Korea (until 1954)
	when?	US recognizes Vietnam, supplies arms and send mission to 
		instruct their use, signs military assistance pact
	summer	Rosenbergs charged with espionage and prosecuted
	Oct	China occupies Tibet
	when?	McCarran Act restricts and requires registery of Communists,
		forbids entry into US of aliens who have belonged to
		totalitarian organizations

		"Cool jazz" develops from bebop
		TV: You Bet Your Life
		Akira Kurosawa: Rashomon
		Nelson Algren: The Man with the Golden Arm (anti-hero)
		Erik Erikson: Childhood & Society
50		Bertrand Russell awarded Nobel Peace Prize for Literature
		Einstein: General Field Theory
		Apr: Kerouac writes first version of On The Road
		"People's Songs" becomes "Sing Out"; Weavers sell out Town
		Hall concerts (Dec); Seeger creates Hootenanny record label
		L. Ron Hubbard wrutes Dianetics; the modern science of
		mental health, a handbook of dianetic therapy
		Miltown comes into wide use in US as tranquilizer
		UN: 480 of the 800 million world's children undernourished
50		which country? becomes second (after US) with mass car ownership
		(Germany?? - Volkswagon)
		All About Eve     ?Bardot starts? is this her/when?
		How St. Germain was ended
		1.5 million television sets in US

50s-60s		Anarcho-pacifist poets group meets almost weekly at
		home of Kenneth Rexroth-San Francisco [250 Scott St]
50s		early: car ownership, level thru 1930s and WWII, starts rise
		above late 1920s level
"after		WWII": new housing/construction starts - rise above ditto

1951		Korean War continues
		Pres. Truman starts college draft deferment
		Suburbs starting to spread
		15 million (sic) television sets in US, huge jump from 1950
51	June	Cleveland d.j. Alan Freed ("Moondog") notices white teenagers
		starting to respond to r&b, starts first r&b radio show
	Sept	First transcontinental television broadcast
	Oct 14	11 Irish musicians meet in Dublin to form the Comhaltas 
		Ceoltoiri Eireann, start of the modern Irish folk music revival
		1951: first Flea Cheoil - Mullingar (Whit week-end)
		?W.E.B. DuBois hauled manacled into federal court for
		advocating peace talks in Korea
		Color television first introduced (US)
		Electric power produced from atomic energy
		Army begins detonating nuclear bombs in Nevada desert
		By winter, radioactivity detected in Rochester, NY snowfall
		Ferlinghetti leaves NY for SF
		Weavers blacklisted by HUAC
		Leadbelly dies

		TV: I Love Lucy
		Brando in A Streetcar Named Desire (the movie)
		J.D. Salinger's Catcher in the Rye is an "instant success"
		among college students 
		David Riesman: The Lonely Crowd (ck - also saw as 1950)
		[Storming Heaven p.95: "other-directed" -> conformity]
		C. Wright Mills: White Collar
		John Clellon Holmes: Go (first beat generation novel published)
		Rachel Carson: The Sea Around Us

1952		Korean War continues
		Nixon's "Checkers" speech
	Apr 22	First atmospheric bomb test - Yucca Flat, Nevada
	May	CORE holds first sit-ins in U.S. history
		Charlie Chaplin's US visa revoked 
	Nov 6	First hydrogen bomb exploded on Eniwetok Atoll by US
		= Thermonuclear bomb 
		Eisenhower defeats Stevenson (ending 20 yrs of Dem presidency)
		First Holiday Inn motor hotel (Memphis, Tennessee)
		Standardization of McDonalds design
		First contraceptive pill produced
		Albert Schweitzer awarded Nobel Peace Prize
		Polio epidemic - 58,000 cases (1400 die, thousands in
		wheelchairs or steel braces)
		L. Ron Hubbard founds Scientology
		George Jorgenson goes to Denmark for the first sex
		change operation, becomes Christine G.

		TV: Dragnet
		James Baldwin: Go Tell It on the Mountain
		Invisible Man: Ralph Ellison
		Fellini: The White Sheik
		Nikos Kazantzakes [accent]: Zorba the Greek
		Samuel Becket: Waiting for Godot
		Simone de Beauvoir: The Second Sex (or is it 53?)
		John Clellon Holmes: "This is the Beat Gen" NYT (Nov 16)
		Weavers give up, stop touring; Pete Seeger begins touring
		college campuses

1953		Korean War (on television ends
		U.S. consumers start buying binge, biggest since the 20s
		Stock market soars, economic indicators very good
	when?	Stalin dies, Khrushchev becomes First Secretary

	Mar	Twenty nuclear tests have occurred in Nevada; sheep 
		dying in Utah, 7 yr old boy dies of leukemia in Carson City
	Apr 13	MK-ULTRA, drug investigation program, started by CIA
	Apr 16	President Eisenhower warns of guns vs. butter
?		when was military-industrial complex warning?
?		when was govts get our of the way for peace?
	May 4	Aldous Huxley (58) takes mescaline
	Jun 19	Rosenbergs executed
53	summer	Baton Rouge bus boycott by Negroes (lasts two weeks)
	when?	Shah of Iran reinstated to power, Mossedagh removed
		television production at 7 million/year
	when?	USSR explodes hydrogen bomb

		TV: Danny Thomas
		Fellini: I Vitelloni (The Young & The Passionate)
		Salt of the Earth (movie about New Mexico's 
		Mexican-American miners strike of 1951)
		produced by blacklisted Hollywood filmmakerrs
		Marlon Brando in The Wild One
		Marilyn Monroe in Gentlemen Prefer Blondes

		B.F. Skinner: Science and Human Behavior
		Alfred C. Kinsey: Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
		James Baldwin: Go Tell It on the Mountain
		Arthur Miller: The Crucible
		Saul Bellow: The Adventures of Augie March
		Hefner starts Playboy
		I.F. Stone starts The Weekly (to 1971)
		Pacifica Foundation starts second station: KPFK in Los Angeles
	June	Ferlinghetti opens City Lights Bookstore in SF
		Allen Ginsberg visits Neal Cassady in SF & stays
		John Lilly invents sense isolation tank and starts experiments 
		with it at the National Institute of Mental Health (til 58)
		Lung cancer reported attributable to cigarette smoking

1954		The US contains 6% of world's population, but 60% of cars,
		58% of telephones, 45% of radios, 34% of railroads
	Apr -	Television covers Army-McCarthy hearings, with 
		Edward R. Murrow; McCarthy is censured by Senate
	May 17	Brown v Bd of Education of Topeka: Supreme Ct strikes down 
		`seperate but equal' doctrine, outlawing segregation in public schools
	May 8	Dien Bien Phu: French defeat in Vietnam
	June	Guatemalan President Arbenz overthrown by military
	July 21	Geneva agreement divides Vietnam
	Oct	Eli Lilly Co? succeeds in artificially synthesizing LSD
	Dec	Fess Parker plays Davy Crockett on Disneyland television show
		-> to 7 month sales boom in coonskin caps & other Crockett items
	when?	US tests hydrogen bomb at Bikini
		Concern in Europe & US about fallout & disposal of radioactive waste
		Albert Einstein dies
		Indian Relocation program sends Indians to the cities
		Microchip & tv dinner invented
		Fender introduces Stratocaster guitar
		Thorazine invented - first major tranquilizer
		200,000+ join the Cub Scouts for the first time

1954		Hank Ballard & the Midnighters: Work With Me Annie a closet hit
		Bill Haley & the Comets: Rock Around the Clock released
		July 5 Elvis Presley records That's All Right [Mama] 
		(by Arthur (Big Boy) Crudup) & Good Rockin Tonight
		(but they don't get on the charts yet) (Sun sessions)
		Leadbelly's songs first released on record
		First Newport Jazz Festival (July)

1950s	mid	Chuck Berry live shows

1954		TV: Disney, Father Knows Best, Lassie
		Marlon Brando in On the Waterfront
		Fellini: La Strada
		Kurosawa: Seven Samurai

		Franz Kafka: The Castle
		Lord of the Flies - William Golding
		Tolkien: Lord of the Rings
		xxx: Blackboard Jungle
		Aldous Huxley: Doors of Perception
		Helen & Scott Nearing: Living the Good Life

1955		military 40 billion out of total U.S. budget of 62 billion
		First national marketing of McDonalds (by Ray Kroc at Des Plaines, Illinois)
	Jan 1	U.S. begins training South Vietnamese army
	Jan 22	First Poets' Follies, San Francisco
	Mar 12	Charlie "Bird" Parker (34) dies (NY apartment of Baroness
		Rothschild "heart attack" - now say pneumonia)
	Apr	29 countries meet in Bandung, Indonesia to form the
		Non-Aligned Movement (first use of "third world")
	spring	Kerouac: "Jazz of the Beat Gen" in New World Writing
	May	Davy Crockett song (Bill Hayes version) tops best seller charts;
		other versions also in Top Ten
	June 23	NY folk/calypso singer Harry Belafonte first time on television
	Jn 29	Gordon Wasson eats psilocybin mushrooms in Oaxaca
	Jn 29	Bill Haley (29) & the Comets Rock Around the Clock
		and Shake Rattle n Roll
		becomes No. 1 hit (for eight weeks) (released Jan 1)
		(former hillbilly singer from Penn, cutting discs in the
		teenage idiom since `Rock The Join' 1952; inspired by Hank
		Williams (c&w) and Louis Jordan (r&b)
	June	Weavers reunion sells out Carnegie Hall, Vanguard releases lp
	summer	Fats Domino: Ain't That a Shame #1 r&b charts, 11 weeks
	July	Ferlinghetti publishes first book of poems
		(Pictures of the Gone World)
55	Aug	Pete Seeger called before HUAC, refuses to testify
	Aug 28	Emmett Till lynched, Mississippi (explain)
	summer	Kerouac writes Mexico City Blues in Mexico City
	Sept 14	Little Richard records Tutti Frutti
	Sept 30	James Dean dies in Porsche crash on Hwy 101;
		East of Eden is out, but Rebel, Giant not even released yet
	fall	Ginsberg takes peyote, has vision of Moloch as America
	fall	Kerouac, 33, meets Gary Snyder, 25, who has been
		studying Japanese and Zen Buddhism U.C. Berkeley 
		in preparation for going to Japan as a Zen monk
55	fall	Anais Nin takes LSD as part of Oscar Janiger's studies (LA)
	Oct	Mickey Mouse Club starts on television
	Oct	Pat Boone's cover of Fats Domino's "Aint That a Shame"
		hits pop charts (Boone's ?first? hit)
	Oct 13	Ginsberg organizes poetry reading at Six Gallery, SF
		(featuring also Michael McClure, Philip Lamantia, Gary Snyder,
		Philip Whalen, Kenneth Rexroth) and brings down the
		house by reading "Howl" publicly for the first time
	Nov	RCA signs Elvis Presley (20) from Memphis 
		and Carl Perkins (23) from Tennessee
55	Dc 5	Rosa Park's refusal to give up her bus seat on Dec 1
		starts year-long Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott by
		30-40,000 Negro riders (out of a Negro population of 50,000),
		of which Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., 26, is appointed leader
		(to Dec 21, 56)
	Dec 24	Aldous Huxley takes his first LSD

		DJ Alan Freed moves to WINS, NY
		7 of 15 pop best sellers are rooted in r&b, produced
		originally for the black music market
		Little Richard first record
		Chuck Berry first record (Maybelline)
		Charlie "Bird" Parker (35) dies

55		Disneyland opens
		TV: 64,000 Dollar Question, Gunsmoke
		James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause, East of Eden
		The Blackboard Jungle: links Rock Around the Clock
		with juvenile delinquency,
		and comics also come under fire for causing j.d.
		Ingmar Bergman: Smiles of a Summer Night

		Family of Man - exhibit & book (Edward Steichen
		for Museum of Modern Art, NY)
		Joseph Heller: Catch 22
		J.P. Donleavy: Ginger Man
		Mad Magazine starts
		Why Johnny Can't Read - Rudolf Flesch
		(The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit - Sloan Wilson)

1956		Federal-Aid Highway Act: Congress authorized 41,000 miles of 
		interstate highways - really begins freeway suburbanization
	Jan	The Platters - black r&b group reach Top Ten pop chart with
		Only You and The Great Pretender; first time
		white buyers prefer original to cover version by whites
	Jan 26	MLK arrested for the first time
	Jan 30	MLK home bombed
	Feb 1	Eisenhower asks first class postage stamp price be
		raised from 3 to 4 cents
	Feb 1	MLK's Montgomery Improvement Association files suit in
		federal court against Alabama for segregation of buses
	Feb 4	white student riot at University of Alabama against
		court-ordered admission of first Negro student
	Feb	U.K.: `Free Cinema': first of a series of programs
		at the National Film Theatre
		-> theatre renaissance (including `Look Back in Anger'
		from John Osborne's book)
56	?Feb 11	Elvis Presley's first appearance (full length) on
		Dorsey Brothers Show, singing Heartbreak Hotel)
		[first tv was Mar 24 - was that when it was played??]
		Heartbreak Hotel goes to Top Twenty
		Pat Boone also on charts with Little Richard's Tutti Frutti
		& Bill Haley with "See You Later Alligator"
		& Carl Perkins with own song "Blue Suede Shoes"
	May 27	Tallahassee bus boycott
	June 5	Elvis on Milton Berle tv show singing "Hound Dog";
		causes commotion about his hip action
	July	Pete Seeger cited for contempt (for HUAC silence)
	when?	Khruschev's anti-Stalin speech  /  20th Congress CP
56	when?	USSR invades Hungary
	when?	revolt in Poland
		US Communist party membership drops to 5000 by year's end
		(from 60-80,000 during and after World War II,
		and 43,000 as late as 1950)
	when?	First C.N.D. Aldermaston march, UK
	fall	Brigette Bardot movies the rage in the U.S.
	Nov	Eisenhower defeats Stevenson again

		(John Wayne, Agnes Moorehead, Susan Hayward shoot
		"The Conqueror" in Utah downwind of Yucca Flats,
		where 11 nuclear bombs were exploded in 1955 -
		By 1960, 90% of the 220 cast & crew had contracted
		cancer & 43 die of it)
		-- Percentage of white collar workers surpasses blue collar --
56??		Third Avenue El removed, opening up Cooper Square in
		NY's Greenwich Village (explain)

		"Rock and Roll" officially used by whites first time
		by Alan Freed, NY dj
		Elvis: Heartbreak Hotel & Blue Suede Shoes
		& Don't Be Cruel with Hound Dog (5 gold records)   MEMPHIS!
		James Brown first record
		Little Richard: Tutti-Frutti & Long Tall Sally
		top r&b (not pop) charts
		Gene Vincent: Be-Bop-A-Lula (first?)
		Belafonte: first album

56		TV: Price is Right
		Fellini: Nights of Cabiria
		Fr: Roger Vadim's first film: And God Created Woman
		(Brigette Bardot's first)

		John Osborne (UK): Look Back in Anger
		William Whyte: The Organization Man
		C. Wright Mills: The Power Elite
		Franz Kafka: The Trial  (posth.)
		Aldous Huxley: Heaven & Hell
		Abraham Maslow publishes first paper on peak experiences
		Rise of the French existentialists      huh?

1957		"Since 1957 the birth rate has been going down" - Wm Whyte
		"nuclear fallout in Nevada in newspapers" - Hettie Jones

	Jan?	Atlanta nonviolent (Negro) bus demo
	Jan 10	Bombings of four Montgomery churches & two Negro leaders' homes
	J 10-11	Southern Christian Leadership Conference founded
		by MLK & 60 other Negro church leaders meeting in Atlanta
	Mar 5	British Gold Coast becomes Ghana, first independent nation of
		sub-Saharan Africa
	Mar	Pete Seeger indicted for contempt of court (for HUAC silence)
	Mar 25	US Customs seizes second printing of Howl by City Lights,
		US District Attorney decides not to pursue, and
		printing released
	May 17	MLK leads Prayer Pilgrimage to Washington D.C. - 30,000
		(Third anniversary of Brown vs. Bd of Ed decision)
	July	Account of Gordon Wasson's mushroom experience
		published in Life Magazine
	July	Alan Freed gets television rock and roll show
	Aug 8	American Bandstand with Dick Clark (27) starts on national television
	Aug	SF Police Juvenile Dept raid City Lights & charge Ferlinghetti 
		with obscenity for selling copies of Howl
57	Aug 29	Civil Rights Act (first civil rights legislation since 1875)
	Sept	On The Road finally published and becomes bestseller
		(6 weeks on the bestseller list)
		(almost titled The Beat Generation)
		Kerouac refuses television series; instead Route 66 started
		Herb Caen coins term "beatnik" (Hettie Jones: "after Sputnik")
	Sept	Howl obscenity trial: ruled not obscene on Oct. 3
	Sept	Russians launch first satellite Sputnik; US responds with 
		increased emphasis on science education in schools [but see Oct4
	Sept 4	Little Rock, Arkansas: nine Negro students try to attend 
		Central High; Governor Orval Faubus orders National Guard to prevent them
1957	Sept 25	President Eisenhower sends Federal troops to Little Rock;
		they remain for the entire school term
	Oct 4	USSR launches Sputnik, first satellite
	Oct	Nuclear accident (fire) at Windscale nuclear plant, England
		releases 600 times more radioactive radio-iodine
		than Three Mile Island (covered up)
	Nov 	USSR launches second Sputnik, with dog inside

		Britain explodes thermonuclear bomb in central Pacific
		Atomic bomb air raid drills
		Strontium 90 detected in cow's milk around the US
		(radioactive isotope which lodges in bone & causes cancer)
		Explosion at nuclear weapons site in Ural Mountains, USSR
		(completely covered up)
		SANE (Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy) founded (see 1958)
		Teamsters Union is expelled from AFL-CIO when Jimmy Hoffa
		refuses to expel criminals & union refuses to expel Hoffa
		Height of the Baby Boom - 4.3 million births
		Bag/Sack dresses ("mumus")
		Use of Milltown tranquilizer rises to 150 million dollars
		Poetry and jazz at The Cellar on Green Street, SF
		Greenwich Village women wearing black dancer's tights 
		instead of stockings

57		Frankie Avalon, Paul Anka, Fabian
		Elvis: Jailhouse Rock
		Everly Brothers: Bye Bye Love & Wake Up Little Susie
		+ At the Hop
		Jerry Lee Lewis: Whole Lot of Shakin' Going On
			& Great Balls of Fire
		Buddy Holly first records: That'll Be The Day, Peggy Sue
			(& w the Crickets on Ed Sullivan)
		Sam Cooke first record

		TV: Have Gun Will Travel, Maverick, Perry Mason, Real McCoys,
		Leave It To Beaver (57-63)
		Dick Clark's American Bandstand starts
		West Side Story (the play?)
		Bergman: The Seventh Seal, and Wild Strawberries
		Becket's End Game plays in London

		Arthur Frommer's first Europe On Five Dollars A Day
		Miller: Big Sur and the Oranges of Hieronymous Bosch
		The White Negro - Norman Mailer (Dissent magazine)
		(used `hipster' to describe the Beats)
		Vance Packard: The Hidden Persuaders 
		(manipulative advertising)
		Malcolm X starts Muslim newspaper "Mohammed Speaks"
		Ayn Rand: Atlas Shrugged

1958	when?	10,000 students join school desegregation march, Wash DC
	early	SANE (Student National Committee for a Sane Nuclear Policy)
		founded (after newspaper ad about bomb tests in late 1957)
	Jan 20	Elvis inducted into ?army? (until March 3, 1960)
	Mar??	U.K.: Thousands march on Aldermaston nuclear base (first)
58		(Direct Action Committee, Bertrand Russell)
	May 	V.P. Nixon motorcade booed in Uruguay, Argentina,
		Bolivia, Peru, and Venezuela
	May	Elvis Presley goes into the army 
		(rock calendar sez enters Mar 24, 59)
	May 11	Last Poet's Follies, SF
	spring	Partisan: The Know-Nothing Bohemians - Norman Podhoretz
	May	Art D'Lugoff opens Village Gate on Bleeker St.
		National attention on beats, 
		tour buses start touring North Beach
when?		Mort Sahl, Bill Cosby at hungry i + Shelly Berman?
58	June	Paul Robeson finally gets a passport 
		8 years after it was taken from him,
		some said for being a Communist Party member?,
		allowing him to tour abroad again (explain)
	Sept	MLK stabbed in Harlem department store
		Alan Watts takes LSD (at Huxley's invitation)
		(this is while doing his radio program)
		-> LSD intro to Ginsberg & Bohemia
	Oct	Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and 20 others arrested in
		Birmingham, Alabama protesting bus segregation;
		Reverend William Holmes Borders launches boycott in
		Atlanta which ends segregated busing
	when?	Bayard Rustin organizes Youth March for Integrated Schools
		which sparks sit-ins in Oklahoma City and Wichita
	when?	Fidel Castro begins "total war" against Batista govt, Cuba
	when?	VP Nixon, on tour of S.Am., recd w hostility; Eisenhower
		sends troops to Caribbean
	when?	US artificial earth satellite Explorer I launched
	when?	USSR Sputnik III launched
	when?	US launches first moon rocket; fails moon but 79,000 mi

		Recession; US almost 5.2 million unemployed
		hula hoops
		The Beatnik mvmt spreads thru US and Europe
		UK: Teddy Boys, started appearing earlier in 50s, "die out"
		Synanon founded
		John Birch Society founded

58		Everly Brothers: Hey Bird Dog, All I Have to Do is Dream
		Chipmunks Song, Purple People-Eater, Lollipop, Tom Dooley
		Coasters: Yakety Yak
		Jackie Wilson: Lonely Teardrops (first?)
		James Brown: Try Me
		Chuck Berry: Johnny B. Goode
		Johnny Otis: Willie and the Hand-Jive
		Stereophonic recordings come into use

		Bobby Darin: Splish Splash (first?)
		Phil Spector starts producing records (?= start of Motown?)
		Kingston Trio: Tom Dooley
		Theodore Bikel Town Hall concert, NY
		John Coltrane: first album

58		TV: Seventy-Seven Sunset Strip
		Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

		The Ugly American - William Lederer
		John Kenneth Galbraith: The Affluent Society
		Ferlinghetti: The Coney Island of the Mind
		Kerouac: Dharma Bums and The Subterraneans
		Paul Krassner starts publishing The Realist
		Lorraine Hansberry: A Raisin in the Sun

1959	when?	Ken Kesey, majoring in writing at Stanford,
		living in Perry Lane, Palo Alto w Robert Stone +
		(Vic Lovell - who had introduced Alpert to mj)
		take psilocybin, LSD, etc at Menlo Park Veterans
		Hospital (under CIA's MK-ULTRA program)
	when?	Wyatt Walker leads Richmond, Virginia CORE march
		of 2000 to protest school segregation
	Apr 29	CORE lunch counter sit-in in Miami
	Jan 2	Cuba: Batista's army defeated by Fidel Castro's guerillas 
59	Feb 3	Buddy Holly (22) , The Big Bopper [J.P. Richardson, 29],
		& Richie Valens (17)
		killed in plane crash nr Mason City, Iowa (5 mi n of Clear Lake)
		-> rock music lull 
		UCBerk: SLATE wins end to discrim in frats & sors
	March	SLATE holds forbidden rally to support Berkeley
		housing discrim initiative
	March	Uprising of Tibetans against the Chinese,
		Dalai Lama flees to India with others
	May	US? sends two monkeys up in a rocket
	May 25	Billie Holiday's last performance (44) [dies 1959]
		First Newport Folk Festival: Joan Baez performs
	(summer	Kesey, working at hospital & writing)
1959	July	Khruschev visits the U.S.
	July	SCLC, CORE, and FOR sponsor first conference on 
		non-violence, at Spelman College, Atlanta
	July 21	D. H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover 
		finally ruled not obscene & legal for publication in U.S.
		after U.S. Postmaster General tries to ban it from the mails
	Sept	Bob Zimmerman enters University of Minnesota
	Sept 26	Highlander Folk School raided & closed down (Tennessee?)
	late	TV program on Elijah Muhammed's Nation of Islam 
		draws first national attention to his Muslims
	fall	U.C. Berk: protest over expulsion of student who had gone
		on a hunger strike to protest U.C. making ROTC compulsory
	Oct	Kerr Directives prohibit UC student governments from 
		taking positions on "off campus" political issues;
		in response, SLATE sends letter to protest firing 
		of professor at Univ Illinois
	winter	Kerouac on Steve Allen television show
59	when?	Carl Jung & his work get first widespread exposure on television
	when?	USSR launches rocket w two monkeys aboard
	when?	US artificial planet Pioneer 4 at Woomera
	when?	USSR Lunik reaches moon; Lunik II photographs moon
	when?	Pres Eisenhower invokes Taft-Hartley Act to halt 116-day-old
		steelworkers' strike; longshoremen's strike halted same way

		Thalidomide children (Better Living Through
		Chemistry's first failure)
		First Barbie dolls
		Radio Station KPFK started in Los Angeles [see earlier]
		San Francisco Mime Troupe founded

		"rock music lull"
		There Goes My Baby, Climb Every Mountain,
		Put Your Head on My Shoulder, A Teen-Ager in Love,
		He's Got the Whole World in His Hands, My Favorite Things
		Bobby Darin: Dream Lover, Mack the Knife
		The Twist becomes #1 record  [must be wrong - see 1960]
		Limelighters, The Brothers Four
		Tom Dooley

		TV: Bonanza, Rawhide
		Some Like It Hot (Marilyn Monroe)
		Bergman: The Virgin Spring, Wild Strawberries
59		Fellini: La Dolce Vita
		Hiroshima mon amour (Alain Resnais)
		Eugene Ionesco: Rhinoceros
		A Raisin in the Sun (play)
		French New Wave cinema boom: 67 new directors make
		first feature films in the next two years 
		(24 in 1959, 43 in 1960)
		including Truffaut: The Four Hundred Blows
		and Jean Luc Godard: Breathless
		(Goldfinger w Ian Fleming)
		(Philip Roth: Goodbye, Columbus)

		William Burroughs: Naked Lunch (Paris publication)
		Kerouac: Dr. Sax, Mexico City Blues, Maggie Cassidy
		Lawrence Lipton: The Holy Barbarians
		A Seperate Peace: John Knowles
59		Common Sense & Nuclear Warfare - Bertrand Russell
	?	Hawaii: James ?Michenor
		(The Manchurian Candidate - Richard Condon
		about search for mind-control drug?)
		Erving Goffman: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
		Norman O. Brown: Life Against Death
		Saul Bellow: Henderson the Rain King

		Yves Saint Laurent's skirt hems at knees doesn't go

1960		military budget 45.8 billion, 49.7% of U.S. budget
		?? Jane Jacobs organizes first successful urban renewal revolt
		(over West Greenwich Village, NYC)
	Feb 1	Greensboro, N. Car.: first day of Woolworth counter "sit-in"
		by four freshmen college students from North Carolina A & T
		(Joseph McNeil, 18; Ezell Blair, Jr; Franklin McCain;
		and David Richmond)
		(after 16 similar demonstrations in the previous 3 years);
		[teachers: *Douglas Moore, George Thomas]
		arrests include: Diane Nash, John Lewis, James Bevel;
		By Feb 16 sit-in's have spread to 15 cities in
		North & South Carolina, Florida, Virginia, & Tennessee
		By Feb's end, 31 Southern cities in 8 states
	Feb	Media discovers that Tennessee Negro sharecroppers who have been
		evicted from their farms for registering to vote are forming
		"Freedom Village" tent cities
	Feb 13	France becomes the fourth nuclear power
	Mar	Montgomery, Alabama: denied ability to join sit-ins for
		fear of jeopardizing the state support of their college,
		half the student body of Alabama State sing the
		Star-Spangled Banner on the state capitol steps &
		march back to campus; their leaders are expelled
1960	Mar	Sit-in's at lunch counters in northern cities
		also 40 new cities in Georgia, W.Va., Texas, Arkansas
	Mar 19	South Africa: Sharpeville Massacre (at new pass law demo):
		police open fire on South Africans burning id. cards;
		63 shot in the back, 13,000 jailed
	Apr	to Apr 61: Eleven African countries declare independence
	Apr 2-3	Nearly 100 student sit-in rs from 19 states attend
		workshop at Highlander School; Guy Carawan teahces them
		1930s labor songs: We Shall Not Be Moved, Keep Your Eyes 
		on the Prize, This Little Light of Mine, We Shall Overcome
	Apr 8	Odetta at Carnegie Hall
	mid Apr	50,000 students have participated in sit-ins
	Apr 15	Nearly 150 students from nine states meet in North Carolina
		with Ella Baker, James Lawson & MLK & form SNCC ("Apr 17")
	Apr 28	Alan Haber & SLID/SDS host first conference on Human Rights
		at the University of Michigan; Farmer & Harrington speak
	April	California: Protests against the death sentence for
		Caryl Chessman (he is executed May 2)
	May 1	Francis Gary Powers shot down in U-2 over USSR
		(public discovers spy flights have been routine)
	early	May: all 160 million Americans participate in the seventh
		national air-raid alert
60	May 6	Civil Rights Act signed by JFK
	May 9	First oral contraceptive, Enovid, licensed
	May 13	during SLATE sit-in against non-admission to 
		HUAC hearings (SF City Hall) police attack 200 protestors
	May	Payola Scandel (radio)

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